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After reading thecoverage, a Republican Illinois governor slapped a moratorium on capital punishment in Illinois. They showed that instead of caring [for] and curing the poor and the sick, thehospital had a long history of killing or harming those it was meant to serve.
Their stories chronicled how nurses neglecteddying patients; how hospital staffers withheld crucial drugs for patients or administered toxic ones by mistake; and howguards used Taser stun guns on psychiatric patients. The Hamster Wheel is volume without thought. It is news panic,a lack of discipline, an inability to say no.
Do youfly to Chicago to talk to that guy about that thing? Or do you do three thingsthat are easier? The Hamster Wheel, then, is investigations you will never see, good workleft undone, public service not performed. Weaver, Randal A. Beam, Bonnie J. Brownlee, Paul S. Voakes, andCleveland G. Wilhoit 41 37 There are well over 10, radio stations in the country, and we ownless than 1, In the s top-line growth was being taken for granted by many of these operators as well as theirinvestors who encouraged the mind-set of leverage, expansion, and quarter-to-quarter growth.
A lot of these larger companies abandonedwhat had made these radio stations enormously successful, which was local, local, local. All of asudden, the trades were filled with companies buying others, consolidation, and everything else. The conversations we hadto have with [our clients], radio owners, changed dramatically because we had to help them figure out how to completelyre-integrate their operations, bring competition into their buildings, and, from a programming standpoint, how to takeadvantage of owning a lot of stations.
The headcount at radio stations decreased dramatically. Local content, especiallynews, has disappeared. In a lot of cases, local programming and local focus have deteriorated and have been replaced by alot of syndicated programming. I was there when they had a parade, and it was like a local holiday with people standingthree deep on the sidewalk, and not a single bit got on the newscasts.
In addition, there was a forest fire outside of town, andthat did not make the local newscast produced out of Denver. I was astonished as to how different my experience in Casperwas compared to what I was hearing on the remotely produced newscast. What I think of is connectivity between markets. We become more efficient: instead of having news gatherers and anchors in every market, wehave news gatherers and anchors in some markets.
We use content from [our] stations in Washington, and we share those thingsthat are most interesting and most compelling and those things get repurposed. So that way, we have the widest variety inthe biggest menu of choices for our listeners.
Then, there will be times when we have50, people listening because there is a storm coming, or something has happened to cause people to turn on the radio,and we are one of the few local voices that has the capacity to really get people out in the field.
More listeners aregoing to digital devices such as Blackberries and iPhones, but we still have a number of people, especially in South CentralKansas, who rely on getting the newscast at the top of each hour.
We have nine people full time in my news department, down from a highof 16, which I had last year [and] most of whom I got rid of were the part-timers. We also cover the school board meetings. We decided to go at it hard to fill this growing vacuum, because wesaw both a marketplace and public service opportunity. Once you start listening to Internet radio, the limits of AM and FM—a limitednumber of stations, within a limited geographic area—seem like a throwback to another era. Net radio provides possibilitiesfor listening well beyond the advertising-soaked sameness of the commercial stations available.
If we tried to reach 14 millionpeople with broadband. It may still be called radio in 10 years, for lack of a better word, but that familiar world of transmitters, antennas,and frequency and amplitude modulation. That means that the loss of local TV advertising as more viewers switch to cable will be at leastpartly offset by an increase in the fees that the highly profitable cable operators pay to local TV stations for broadcastprogramming.
In fact, local TV news sites rank among the most popular news websites those with at least a half amillion monthly unique visitors , along with newspaper sites. They [the sales department] need more inventory. I also think it givesyou a jumpstart, a head start on your other newscasts. You are setting the plate earlier. Stations in the mid-Atlantic andNortheast have been assisting their viewers for months now during this record-breaking snow season.
I thinkcompanies covering car wrecks and traffic accidents are kidding themselves if they think they are going to survive the InternetAge because that information can be gotten by anyone with an iPhone. So we have always preached in our company—and itis in our core values—serving our communities with deep information. The cable companies arenot going to do it, [nor are] the telephone companies, the satellite companies. The only people who can do this type ofreporting are local television stations or local newspapers.
Time spent on teasers, bumpers and intromusic in Seattle outnumbered time covering the Washington gubernatorial race by to-one. Senate, yet 94 percent of the broadcasts analyzed in these marketsfailed to contain a single story about a Senate race. Senate race, 88 percent of the half-hours of news studied contained nostories about the Senate race.
Six times as much time was devoted to crime, and twice as much time was devoted to storiesabout accidental injury, than to stories about the Senate race. House appeared in the Los Angeles stories captured during this period.
What we are witnessing in this election cycle is the slow death of traditional statewide campaign journalism. That adds up to the kind of money that many cashstrappedstations well might decide to save or reallocate—no matter how prestigious the unit. It breaks my heart to see the shift toward doingmore crime, fires, weather stories, instead of spending the time and resources to tell the public what they really need toknow.
It was the timing of contracts, which causedus to go that direction to save money. The investigative people tended to be higher paid than the others, but they also had contractwindows that allowed us to do it in a timely fashion.
As difficult as that was, we had to make that call. Serious, in-depth investigative reporting happens on rare occasions in local television news. Why do you lead night after night with crime and fire?
Seductive and addictive. They depend on the weeks and the months and the yearsof good solid civic coverage of your city. More Americans get their news from local newscasts than from any other source. And that makes what you do important. How do webetter prepare our broadcast journalists to service these three platforms?
Can we do it under the existing format? Shootingwas rushed, interviews were rushed, and writing and editing was as well. It was nerve-racking because I was always worried about shooting the right video and makingsure the audio was correct. Bickett then pitched to reporter Sharon Dennis who would have more on that story. Sharon Dennis presenteda report on the computer-guided rehab program at Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio. And it was not disclosedto the viewer.
Othersdescribed the same thing. TV news producers must fill an expanding news hole, particularly in the mornings,where many news programs have been extended from three to four, five and even six hours.
They are outdoors related and related tohunting, fishing, enjoyment of the outdoors, camping, parks, and those kinds of things. We fully vet them. We are completelytransparent about where we get them and who gives them to us, both on air, and online.
We have no control over them. The only exception will be ifthere is a recall on a pharmaceutical drug and [this is] the only video from inside the factory and we clearly label where it camefrom. But we do not take VNR handouts, period. We bring the same pictures back every day.
This venture will justcover those four or five stories in a pooling situation. And it has nothing to do with homogenization. We did that for that Fort Hood tragedy, our Waco station did, when the guy shot all thosepeople in Fort Hood—36 straight [hours of] programming.
And we partner with local colleges and[in] some cases those really aggressive high schools to let those kids run the cameras and let those kids field produce. Underthe current system, in which cable companies like Comcast pay the networks for carriage and then pass on the cost to theircustomers—networks get to charge on the basis of everyone who subscribes to cable television, whether they watch thenetwork or not.
Networks also get to charge more for advertising than they would if they were not part of the bundle. Cable Industry Historical Projections, Volume 1 — Subscribers in millions When you make a link, you can linkto anything. That means people must be able to put anything on the Web, no matter what computer they have, software theyuse or human language they speak and regardless of whether they have a wired or wireless Internet connection.
You do not have to get approval from any central authority to add apage or make a link. All you have to do is use three simple, standard protocols: write a page in the HTML hypertext markuplanguage format, name it with the URL naming convention, and serve it up on the Internet using HTTP hypertext transferprotocol.
Decentralization has made widespread innovation possible and will continue to do so in the future. Applications 38 39 40 41 The bus commuter might begin a compelling enterprise news package on a smartphone during the ride,then pick it up again later on an office PC, home laptop, or iPad tablet, for example.
Portability of content across varioussystems and interfaces increasingly will be critical for news providers seeking to reach the largest audience possible. Throughout American history, the vast majority of news has been provided by commercial media. For the reasons described in Part One, the commercial sector has been uniquely situated to generatethe revenue and profits to sustain labor-intensive reporting on a massive scale.
But nonprofit mediahas always played an important supplementary role. While many nonprofits are small, community-based operations, others are large and some havedeveloped into institutions of tremendous importance in the information sector.
Technological changes have transformed noncommercial media as much as they have commercialmedia. Public TV and radio are morphing into multiplatform information providers.
Even before theInternet, nonprofit programming was emerging independent of traditional public TV and radio onsatellite, cable television, and low-power FM stations. And now, with the digital revolution, we seean explosion of new nonprofit news websites and mobile phone applications. Several factors have prompted media watchers to focus more intensely on the role of nonprofit media.
First, as noted in Chapter 4, Internet, the types of information that are in decline are those that havealways been challenging for the commercial sector to produce profitably. Business models from thepast that relied on more profitable types of information to subsidize the production of less profitabletypes have crumbled in the digital age, making the challenge of providing those less profitable typeseven greater.
Among the products the commercial sector seems to be under-producing are locallabor-intensive beat reporting; investigative reporting; so-called broccoli journalism about topicsimportant to individual and communal health, but not always popular ; and foreign coverage.
Andthere is the fact that most advertisers do not like to associate their brands with controversial or lesspopular content, so they are unlikely to pay premium rates to help sustain the content production.
Most American media outlets are now owned by publicly held corporations traded in the equity markets. This structure has many advantages, providing operational efficiencies and drawing massiveamounts of private capital into the media system.
But it has drawbacks, too. These companies havea fiduciary responsibility to maximize profit, making it sometimes difficult for them to do what non-. The persistence of gaps in the markets for information has led many to wonder whether the roleof nonprofit organizations in the media ecosystem should become different or larger, especially inregard to local news.
Indeed, some nonprofits seem inclined to step up their contributions to localinformation, news, and journalism, but they face many obstacles in doing so. Local news reporting is an essential part of the public education function that American public radio and televisionhave been charged with fulfilling since their inception.
Its programming of the news shouldgrow to encompass both facts and meaning, both information and interpretation. It should be historian, in addition to beingdaily journalist. Its programs should call upon the intellectual resources of the nation to give perspective and depth tointerpretation of the news, in addition to coverage of news day by day. You end upnot wanting to duplicate what is on the commercial airwaves if it is already there and.
Belowthose stations, there are probably another 15 to 20 public radio operations [whose] local newsrooms might be on the orderof seven to 15 reporters and editors and producers, and they are in the next tier down in market size.
They are in places like St. In fact, as far as their news analysts are concerned,there are 18 liberal-leaning individuals on the air and one moderate, David Brooks. There are no conservative voices heard inthe national public broadcasting precincts. But now they really are. This isbecause government content decisions are seen by many as tilting the public policy playing field in a way inconsistent withtheir beliefs. If we tried to reach 14million people with broadband.
If public broadcastinginvests too heavily in programming that is not widely consumed, some deem it irrelevant. They provide groups and individuals who generally have not had access to the electronic media with the opportunity tobecome sources of information in the electronic marketplace of ideas. PEG channels also contribute to an informed citizenryby bringing local schools into the home, and by showing the public local government at work.
In this way, they are often closely aligned to the services provided by public libraries and other trusted communityanchors. Community media are important in the development of digital literacy training,citizen journalism, hyperlocal civic agency, and collaboration with local communities and nonprofits. There is currently somecollaboration happening between public and community media; more should be encouraged.
Also, we were told that since CT-Nwas not defined as a must-carry, there was no compelling reason to provide us with free bandwidth to carry the channel. But ittook seven years of pushing the issue to get there. Even though a bill was passed out of a legislative committee mandating carriage of CT-N on satellite, the industrymaintained. We have participated in that application process with no success to date, but the expense involved and thelikelihood that a network designed to serve a single state would be selected for nationwide channel capacity makes this anuntenable solution for one public affairs network, let alone 50 of them.
State governments are where increasing amounts of public policy are set, and the arenas where much of thebattles between the federal government and the states are fought, and we allow the current transparency vacuum to exist instates where these initiatives have been unable to flourish at our collective peril as a nation. In doing so, each DBS Provider annually evaluates applicants for its set-asidechannels; assesses key measures such as program quality, signal quality, and genre; and strives to ensure a diverse, nonrepetitivemix of educational and informational programming.
Last year, there were five on avery good day who could be found in and around [the] city hall pressroom. At the same time, a lot of other topics such asentertainment, food, and travel have really maintained their levels of coverage, in part because those are the most lucrativeareas and most tied into [the] advertising industry.
The areas of core civics reporting, business reporting in terms of producersof consumer goods and retailers and [the] financial industry, people in those industries have a lot fewer eyes on them. Just trying to increase [the] amount of reporting.
We think of ourselves as [a] means for people to engage issues incommunity. Americans have never relied solely on the media as their source for critical information. The PTAnewsletter, a flier on the bulletin board at work, gossip over the hedge, the weekly sermon, theNational Weather Service, campaign advertisements, public health announcements—these areamong the myriad ways we learn about events that impact our lives.
The digital revolution has notonly transformed traditional media but also has created new ways for Americans to get civicallyimportant information from outside the flow of the news media. In this chapter, we look at fourareas we expect will become increasingly important sources for information: government, libraries,emergency alert systems, and schools.
However, in the world of Web2. Members of the public are no longer reliant on informationfrom public authorities, nor will they wait for official communications in times of need.
Instead, they utilize social networksand networked communications to access information, to create and produce information, and to broadcast information toothers. Videos or pictures demonstrating specific protective actionscan be linked directly to alert and warning information via sites like YouTube or Flickr. Furthermore, educational campaignscan take advantage of multi-user online game technologies such as Second Life. The study found that low income households, theelderly and English learners, were among the groups most likely to make use of computer training opportunities at locallibraries.
For these households, public libraries may provide the only low-cost entry point into an increasingly Internetdependentworld. Chloe eventually decided to pursue formal vocational education and. I have taught at both public and private universities.
The levels of comfort with, understanding of, and dexterity with digital technology varies greatly within every class. Yet ithas not changed in the aggregate in more than 10 years.
In many cases, students typically use information thatfinds them, rather than deciding what information they need. Theyalso learn about how to clearly communicate by email. To become a successful student, responsible citizen, productive worker, or competentand conscientious consumer, individuals need to develop expertise with the increasingly sophisticated information andentertainment media that address us on a multi-sensory level, affecting the way we think, feel and behave.
But the lines between these sectors are becomingincreasingly blurred. In this world of converging media, TV is on the phone, the Internet is on theTV, and the newspaper is on the tablet. This section looks at the media landscape through differentlenses. In some cases, we draw on material that appearedin the first parts of this report; in others, we introduce new information.
In all, we attempt to answerthese questions: Overall, which parts of the media system are healthy and which are most vulnerable? How well is the media performing its most important functions? How have changes in the mediaworld affected communities that have historically been underserved by mass media, such as ethnicminorities and people with disabilities? If there is a vacuum in news, information, and journalism, how significant is it—and how likely is itthat commercial markets alone will fill the void?
Theincidental learning of a bundled metropolitan paper disappears, just as much of the incidental learning from exposure to localradio and television news is dropping with the fragmentation of television and audio audiences.
Census Bureau 13 14 Polarization Percentage of each audience who are. However, in the past decade, those two papers plus the Los Angeles Times have eclipsedall others combined, sometimes accounting for more than half of all investigative stories that were honored. Papers thatonce appeared with some frequency on the list seem now to have lost either the will or the wherewithal to mount majorinvestigations.
Scoops are measured in nanoseconds and posted online the moment they are secured and sometimes prior to that. Louis Post-Dispatch, a Lee Enterprises-owned newspaper. Condon was forced to close down the bureau in November two years after its reporters won aPulitzer. Government, at least in this study, initiates most of the news. Interest groupfigures made up most of the rest.
But dealing with state court officialsreminds me of what people complained about in socialist economies. These legions of apparatchiks that are interested intheir turf, their petty domains of power and made-up rules, and have no understanding of and no interest in the principles ofour nation or the need for a strong press. The mere revelation of that information in itself did not mobilize the effort that might have sparedthe city the worst ravages of Hurricane Katrina 14 months later.
Interested or influential people did not engage with theinformation in timely, effective ways. Unless people, armed with information, engage with their communities to produce apositive effect, information by itself is powerless. To read the byline, to read the copy written by people of color, and to seepeople of color on television, it confirms your vitality in this multiracial and multicultural society.
It says we can do this too. Italso mattered in the education of white people, in and out of government. Syndication has not only caused a disproportionate loss ofindustry jobs, but more importantly, stifled news and information to local communities.
They compete hard on serious stories. Newspapers 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70News Coverage 71 72 73 74 75 76 This means less or less complete coverage of issues that are important to them. Issues like economic inclusion, thestruggle for quality public education, immigration reform, and the prevention of violent hate crime.
How Big Is the Gap? That might not seem like a lot ofmoney to the grey lady, but it looks like a huge jackpot to a still-small company like the Huffington Post. They—and dozens oftheir competitors—are working hard to find ways to take a piece of that pie.
They have no faith in the restorative power of a diverse, market-based ecosystem, becausethey have little or no experience of being part of one. After experiencing alarming drops in readership at their websites, papers in places such asHarlingen, Texas, and Sonoma, Calif. With paywalls off the table, publishers noware moving toward hybrid systems that will let them charge some kinds of fees for some kinds of content under certain kindsof circumstances.
So long as the newspaper has enough page views to produce enough advertising inventoryto satisfy demand, the subscription revenue would appear to be sufficient to support one to four additional bodies in thenewsroom although there can be no guarantee that this is where the windfall would land. Some of the savvier local businesses have figured that the way toreach people is directly through social [networks]. Will [traditional] media be an intermediary in that experience?
Butwhy would local businesses want to add that layer? Since the beginning of the Republic, government policies have affected—sometimes profoundly—the evolution of the news media. What follows is a description and evaluation of FCC and othergovernmental policies that have shaped—and that continue to shape—the news media landscapeand the provision of civically important information to citizens on a community level and nationwide.
We focus on those policies that relate to the concerns raised in Part One, especially regarding thehealth of local information, news, and journalism. While some FCC policies have helped, somehave not—and crafting sound policy going forward requires the Commission to understand why. In general, our review indicates that: 1. In most cases it has resolved this dilemmaby imposing only general affirmative duties—e.
The licenseehas broad discretion in giving specific content to these duties, and on application for renewal it is understood the Commissionwill focus on his overall performance and good faith rather than on specific errors it may find him to have made. The journalists at the Chronicle did notworry about it: those at the radio station did.
Not only the station manager but the news people as well were very muchaware of the Government presence looking over their shoulders.
I can recall newsroom conversations about what the FCCimplications of broadcasting a particular report would be. Once a newsroom has to stop and consider what a Governmentagency will think of something he or she wants to put on the air, an invaluable element of freedom has been lost.
Especiallyin recent years, such information programs and news and news commentaries have achieved a popularity exceeding thepopularity of any other single type of program. The war, of course, tremendously increased listener interest in such programs;but if broadcasters face the crucial problems of the post-war era with skill, fairness, and courage, there is no reason whybroadcasting cannot play as important a role in our democracy hereafter as it has achieved during the war years.
That gave you an idea of what thestories were. The problem with newsrooms today is that we live in a bubble. We are in a newsroom all day long; we see thesame sort of stuff all day long. Sometimes we try not to, but we worry more about what the other guy is covering. I think wehave lost touch. Local stations as a whole can do a better job of being in touch with their communities.
The ascertainmentrequirement forced them to do so. We were reporting every single aspect of the infrastructure of the city and surroundingcities. Other than issue responsive programming, stations need not, as a Commission requirement,present news, agricultural, etc.
We do not expect radio broadcasters to attempt to be responsive to the particular problems of each group in thecommunity in their programming in every instance.
What we do expect, however, is that marketplaceforces will assure the continued provision of news programs in amounts to be determined by the discretion of the individualbroadcaster guided by the tastes, needs, and interests of its listenership. We do expect, and will require, radio broadcasters tobe responsive to the issues facing their community.
That the Commission would simultaneously seek to deprive interested partiesand itself of the vital information needed to establish a prima facie case in such petitions seems almost beyond belief. Webelieve that licensees should be given the flexibility to respond to the realities of the marketplace by allowing them to alter.
Such an approach not only permits more efficient competitionamong stations, but poses no real risk to the availability of these types of programming on a market basis. This is particularlytrue in view of the continuing obligation of all licensees to contribute issue-responsive programming and their responsibility toensure that the strongly felt needs of all significant segments of their communities are met by market stations collectively.
Not 98 On every occasion. In addition, on every occasion. Sometimes I broadcast jokes. The broadcasts. Title III generally instructs the Commission to regulate broadcasting as the publicinterest, convenience, and necessity dictate. Increasing the human and financial resources going into news would be one way to benchmark progress.
Producing more local civic affairs programming would be another. Now it is time to putnews and information front-and-center. At election time, there should be heightened expectations for debates and issuesorientedprogramming. Those stations attaining certain benchmarks of progress could qualify for expedited handling of theirlicense renewals. This requirement would have, by the way, important spill-over effects in a media environment where manynewspapers are owned by broadcast stations—although such cross-ownership is something I hope the Commission will putthe brakes on.
Nowadays, when stations are so often owned by mega companies andabsentee owners hundreds or even thousands of miles away—frequently by private equity firms totally unschooled in publicinterest media—we no longer ask licensees to take the public pulse. Diversity of programming suffers, minorities are ignored,and local self-expression becomes the exception.
We should be working toward a solution wherein acertain percentage of prime-time programming—I have suggested 25 percent—is locally or independently-produced. PublicService Announcements should also be more localized and more of them aired in prime-time, too. And PEG channels—public,educational and government programming—deserve first-class treatment if we are to have a first class media.
Whatever specific elements have been in the regulatory spotlight, the essential core of the public interest obligation hasremained constant. This core requirement focuses on whether a station is providing programming responsive to the localcommunity. They have served both the public and the broadcast industry well. To the contrary, it is clear that radio andtelevision stations fulfill their public interest obligation and serve their local listeners and viewers.
For my part, I do not look forward to a society which, thanks to the Supreme Court, campaigns anonymously and evenexercises the direct democracy of initiative and referendum hidden from public scrutiny and protected from the accountabilityof criticism. This does not resemble the Home of the Brave. At stakeis our long held national value of promoting a diverse and free information flow to all Americans.
Studies confirm that localoff-air television is the number one source of news and information to the American public. We may lose this lifeline in thenext decade unless the unbridled power of cable is restrained today.
The economics of broadcasting—indirect paymentthrough advertising—will insure that all citizens have access to information. Our responsibility as public trustees will insurethat all citizens have access to programming that responds to the needs of the community. Absent free off-air television,government policy makers will be confronted with the costs of providing some form of lifeline service for those not connectedto the wire, a cost which must be borne by the taxpayer or subscribers.
They provide groups and individuals who generally have not had access to the electronic media with theopportunity to become sources of information in the electronic marketplace of ideas. PEG channels also contribute to aninformed citizenry by bringing local schools into the home, and by showing the public local government at work.
All of these principles are subject to reasonable network management. Reasonable network management shall not constitute unreasonable discrimination. The Christian Coalitiontestified some time ago on this issue and many members of Congress promised to act if network operators blocked politicalspeech. Ownership Diversity 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 Thevast majority of broadcast spectrum licenses have traded hands in the secondary market for lucrative sums.
In many cases,those television and radio properties have traded hands numerous times. A local newspaper, a commercial or public broadcaster, ethnic and alternative media, citizen media,new web-based startups, all of them can use open source news technology. The technology does not care whether they areliberal or conservative, old or young, city dwellers or rural Americans, black or white or any color of the rainbow.
People willstill be free to choose what news they would like to consume; they will, in fact, have greater choice in a media ecosystemricher in local media. In providing that assistance, thepublication of a daily newspaper lessens the burdens of government.
Further, by providing a convenient and comprehensivemeans for governments, businesses, and nonprofit organizations to convey information to each other and the general publicregarding elections, public health services, and the availability of commercial goods and services, newspapers contributeimportantly to the economic health and general welfare of the geographic areas they serve.
We ran an op-ed typepiece by somebody explaining why. And we got somebody who complained to us that running an article like this from a person in thecommunity, it was a violation of our c 3 status. We believe that it is not; a significant part of the function of newspapers infacilitating the operations of a local economy consists in the informational content provided by advertising. A New c Classification?
Individuals, banks under CRA [Community Reinvestment Act], corporations with dualobjectives of investment return and corporate image are the types of investors who could occupy this tranche. This makes the senior tranche very stable and hence investors in this tranchewill ask for a lower return because of the low risk and could more likely be long-term-income directed investors. Pension fundsand other large institutional investors are very possibly in this tranche.
In addition to conserving increasing scarce federal funds, U. Public agencies have required paidpublication of this kind of information for decades as a way to ensure that citizens are informed of critical actions. Historically,these fine-print notices have been a lucrative business for newspaper publishers, and have touched off heated bidding warsfor government contracts. Legal notices have been especially important to weekly and other community newspapers. Theirtrade association, the National Newspaper Association, estimated in that public notices accounted for 5 percent to 10percent of all community newspaper revenue.
Some largernewspapers have had similar successes. Much of that disappearedwith the Postal Reorganization Act of and in subsequent cutbacks. Since it would beimpossible for any search engine to get permission to copy and display this information from billions of websites, the conceptof fair use underlies all search. If aggregators would like to build business based on the use of our content, they shouldcome to us to seek permission to obtain it on terms that we would sell.
You just have to write to the person and get permission to link. This for me suggests humility as the guiding principle of intervention. As a generalprinciple, the information already required to be disclosed by broadcasters should be, over time, put online, and the paper file should become athing of the past. Data releases should include an Application ProgrammingInterface API that allows the data to be shared easily with other computers and applications.
Remove Obstacles That Prevent CPB From Emphasizing Local Content and Innovation public TV stations should be spared the paperwork burdens of the current disclosure system required to offer the public clear information about how much local programming they are doing and other types of information that mightpromote accountability and improve quality.
There is one public-private partnership we think would be a bad idea: some have suggested creating a federally-funded AmeriCorpsprogram for journalists. PEG channels should not necessarily resist local efforts to require a minimum amount of local programmingPEG channels shouldconsider evolving into broader platforms for a broader range of nonprofit programming, including that created by local nonprofit websites, LPFMs,SPANs, public radio or independent video programmers.
LPFMs have asked the Commission to requirea minimum amount of local programming. We recommend that the Commission consider such a requirement. Encourage Broad-based Digital and Media Literacy st Community media centers should continuepromoting digital literacy, and localities considering cutting PEG funding should re-assess those decisions in light of this new role.
We oppose the creation of amandatory national standard or curriculumIncentive Auctions and Public Broadcasters. The FCC should administer the new statute to maximizethat potential and should take extra steps to disseminate information about any availability of new local broadcast opportunities. It should continue to do so on a regular basisresolve the confidentiality issue and resume the collection of such data. The Commission might consider creatingor participating in a Minority Capital Institute.
HamiltonEllen P. GoodmanPeter M. RolandJoel TaubenblattMark S. NadelGregory CookeIrene S. Reuter also used carrier pigeons to bridge the gap inthe telegraph line then existing between Aachen and Brussels.
How ManyPages in a Gigabyte? If one assumes stripped down text files, then a gigabyte flash drive could carry 86,, times more than the pigeon. See 47 U. See also id. United States, U. Digital Broadcast Satellite licensing, ownership, broadcast stationsignal retransmission and carriage also fall under the purview of theFCC.
We believe effective performance ofthese responsibilities requires FCC Commissioners and staff to have anunderstanding of developments within the broader sphere where radio,television, cable and satellite media outlets operate. Instead, we describe belowa set of inter-related changes in the media landscape that provide thebackground for future FCC decision-making, as well as assessments byother policymakers beyond the FCC.
OF AM. JOHN W. The American Society of Newspaper Editors put total newspapernewsroom employment in at 41, This means that roughly the same number of journalists areworking at newspapers today as in , even though the population ofthe US has increased by more than 50 percent.
The population in was ,,, while the population in was ,, Census Bureau, U. Arbitron provided aggregate data to the FCC but didnot identify the stations that identified themselves as all-news stations. The number could be slightly higher. These channels serve subscriberson cable systems in approximately 71 out of the total DesignatedMarket Areas in the country, and many of these DMAs contain largemetropolitan regions—New York, Boston, Chicago, or San Francisco—with multiple channels.
Therefore, we estimated that these39 cable news channels were available to at least Our cable newschannel count incorporates only those channels that continue to utilizejournalists to originate local or regional news.
While Americans mayreceive news from a somewhat greater number of cable channels thatmerely rebroadcast or simulcast network news program ming, we haveomitted such channels from our tally. They had 1, members in and 1,members now. Hamlin provided an example ofthe distances he was required to drive in a single day to cover far-flungstories, due to staff reductions: Stockton to Vallejo, In addition,postmasters collected and remitted subscription fees.
Consequently,during the presidential campaign, federal patronage funds weresupporting two papers that advocated the reelection of Adams and onenewspaper that advocated the election of Andrew Jackson. Improvements in the Fourdrinier papermaking machine continued; andprices, variable in the period, ranged from fourteen to eight cents apound for the rag paper used in printing. Thepenny papers of large circulation were printed on Napier pressesbuilt by Richard M.
These were at firstsingle-cylinder, flat-bed presses capable of about 2, impressionsper hour and turned by cranks manned by stout laborers. As circulationsexpanded, they soon gave way to double-cylinder presses with twofeeders and capable of 4, impressions an hour. In the New YorkSun installed steam power, setting an example which was soon followedby the other successful penny papers.
Second, local editorsand reporters, who wrote only 25 percent of news articles in their ownpapers during the years to , increased their share of the totalto 45 percent by to , while the proportion clipped from othernewspapers or, in the later period, received by telegraph fell from 54percent to 38 percent. In otherways, however, remarkably little changed. The survey of sixty-sevenpapers found no significant shift during the antebellum period in thegeneral subjects of stories there was no reduction in attention topolitics or in the level of readability.
From to , a corresponding sample indicated that only 13percent of published news items concerned events more than a monthold, and twice as many items 41 percent were of events that had takenplace within the three days prior to publication. It has madethe newspaper more of an institution, less of a personal organ.
Now it issimply Times, Herald, Tribune, and so on. By that had changed to circulation30 percent, advertising 69 percent, and miscellaneous one percent. Intheir own study of newspaper revenue in , Borden, Taylor, and Hovdefound that circulation accounted for a median of 29 percent of revenuesamong papers with circulation under 10,, and a median of 36 percentof revenues at papers with circulation over , Inheritance taxes sometimes forced extended families toliquidate properties whose multiple owners had other interests.
Thesepressures to sell coincided with an incredible escalation in the marketvalue of newspapers and television stations. Surviving dailies becameall the more valuable as their competitors dropped by the wayside. A comparatively small number of these companies competedaggressively for the newspapers that became available in single-ownershipmarkets at the same time that huge money-losing second papersin big cities scrambled to find new owners. In a business world where to stand still was to lose ground, expansionand acquisition were the essential rules of the game.
Such activitiesrequired capital and propelled companies into public ownership. And these days, they are changing handslike used cars at an auction. Of the U. One hundred and eleven of these small papers were soldtwo, three, or even four times during this six-and-a-half year period. These new owners are highlyleveraged and itching to make money. Seelye, Wall St. Contreras, The E. The American Society of Newspaper Editors puttotal newspaper newsroom employment in at 41, AmericanSociety of News Editors, Newsroom employment up slightly, minoritynumbers plunge for third year, Apr.
This means that roughly the same numberof journalists are working at newspapers today as in , even thoughthe population of the US has increased by more than 50 percent. COM, Oct. COM, Aug.
Tragically, since these interviews, Hamlin died of cancer. Hamlin provided an example of the distanceshe was required to drive in a single day to cover far-flung stories, due tostaff reductions: Stockton to Vallejo, Girdner laments the closing of ranks on afederal level, as well, specifically in the Justice Department. See U. POST, Mar. Guzda Struck Aug. They had 1, members in and have1, members now. Times , Sept. Even before thisbreakthrough Christmas Eve broadcast, Fessenden had gained notorietyfor being the first to experimentally broadcast voice over the air.
On December23, , Fessenden, stationed at Cobb Island on the PotomacRiver, successfully transmitted his voice, asking if it was snowing, to hisassistant, in Arlington, Virginia. Sterling, ed. At the time,Murrow had never written a news story in his life, and he had nevermade a scheduled radio broadcast.
Mark Bernstein, History of EdwardR. Press McKean and Vernon A. By another measure, the number of radiojournalists declined from more than 0. Id at 7. Arbitron provided aggregate data to the FCC but did not identifythe stations that identified themselves as all-news stations. Skelly, News Dir. Cochran, Pres. It was the only source of infowe had. The connection with callers calling in andannouncements made me feel people were out there who knew whatwas going on.
This experience gave me a much greater appreciation forradio. They all did a very goodjob. Edison collected six separate minutesegments of airtime, totaling two hours all together. After Edison submitted its finding,FCC staff audited the data and found that some observations had beenmisclassified, with the result that some specific categories e. See also 47 C. Kling, Pres. Typically, after a short period of time, they becamehighly profitable for their owners. C, 3-B. POST, Nov. Blanchard, ed. FitzroyDearborn Mon-Sat 8—11p.
Interview with Michael Dimock, Assoc. Dimmock says the viewers are looking for quality and substance. Thereis still a core of Americans who regularly schedule their news watching;it is part of a routine for them, and they still like getting news in thepackaged traditional format, and that is where local news programs stillfill an important niche. Newscast, WBEZ The announcement came 10 daysafter WGN in Chicago had announced it would be starting its morningnews block at A.
School of Journalism, Alfred I. Conditions, XI. Localism Conditions, 5. Du-Pont Awards director, Abi Wright, says the jury was impressed by whatthey saw from local television news stations coverage in —thoughat the same time, of the six prizes that were given, four went to TV stationsthat had won previously.
WCAX is a family-owned station, and I knowthe reporters at these stations thank the owner and managers of thesestations for giving them the resources for the reporting to do what theyneeded to do. Already this year duPont has seen a big rise in entries—5percent—and the bulk is from local entries. Interview with Abi Wright,Dir. Data adapted from MarkHorvit, Exec. Data adapted from MarkHorvit July 23, However, Abshire says that the medical center still makes agreementswith stations to purchase time on the station in Columbus, but now OSU.
Interview withLori Abshire, Sr. Kennard, FCC, by telephone, Mar. KVVU went even furtheron its A. More does not feature breaking news. At least twenty federal agencies, including theState Department, Transportation Security Administration, the AgricultureDepartment, the Census Bureau, and the Defense Department, allcreated and disseminated videos resembling newscasts.
Some of thesevideos included department officials who were posing as reporters andfailed to mention that the individuals were in fact employees of governmentagencies. Over the following year, the media focused on examining the lengthsto which the administration would go for good press.
Eventually, itwas reported that the Department of Education paid nearly a quarterof a million dollars to commentator Armstrong Williams for supportingthe No Child Left Behind Act in his weekly newspaper column andtelevised news show. Greg Toppo, Education Dept. As a result, the FCC distributed officialLetters of Inquiry to the documented seventy-seven television stations. RTDNA amended their. This is especially important as we beginthe cold and flu season and one of the biggest travel times of the year.
Yet [two] out of [five] travelers surveyed say colds havenegatively impacted their trips. You can eat right, exercise, walk around in a bubble suit. And in m[y] research, I found that homeopathiczinc products can shorten the duration of your illness. Thesurvey showed [four] in [five] of the U. But there are some things you can do to get better.
Especially in the first 48 hours. You can take an intranasal zinc preparation,like Zicam. To cut down on the severity and duration of symptoms. You can also take a decongestant. Get more rest. Drink some chickensoup. And sleep. If you do get sick, there are things you cando to fight back. Well think fast. The Sky issold out. The Pontiac G6 convertible is sold out. Yes they do. Comments , at ii. Comments at 4. Comments at Comments at iii, 2.
Comments at iii. A dozen noted newsprogramming—just not all news. Seven noted weather radar. Four saidinformational programming, and four noted sports. Three said traffic;two said programming in another language; and one noted movies. Data averages include totalscheduled news minutes on full-power broadcast television stationsover the sample period.
Includes all news minutes; no deductions aremade for weather, sports, advertising, etc. Monday to p. Sunday to determine if the station aired any news. The sources used to determine station programming were Zap2It. If the station broadcast 30 minutes or more of news per week, thatstation was deemed to broadcast news.
Regionaland Campus News programs were included in the local news category. Broadcasts of state legislature, public affairs, and public interest programswere not considered news. Once these determinations were made, percentages were calculatedfor the total markets.
The total number of broadcast stations was 1, Of those, 1, stations were commercial stations, and were noncommercialeducational stations. There were stations that broadcastno local news, and stations did not broadcast news. Of the noncommercialeducational stations, did not broadcast local news.
Calculations were also made for the Top DMAs in those categories. The Top DMAs contained 1, stations. Of those, were commercialstations and were noncommercial educational stations. Therewere stations in the top markets that broadcast no local news,and stations that broadcast no news. Staffing press release , Apr. G, Table 4 The numbercould be slightly higher. These channels serve subscribers on cable systems in approximately 71out of the total Designated Market Areas in the country, and manyof these DMAs contain large metropolitan regions—New York, Boston,Chicago, or San Francisco—with multiple channels.
Therefore, we estimatedthat these 39 cable news channels were available to at least Ourcable news channel count incorporates only those channels that continueto utilize journalists to originate local or regional news.
While Americansmay receive news from a somewhat greater number of cable channelsthat merely rebroadcast or simulcast network news program ming, wehave omitted such channels from our tally. The new local cablenews channels will expand the availability of local and regional news toan additional 5,, cable subscribers, or an almost 4. FCC staff calculation. See Banyai andSeave research.
Similarly, Chicago-based CLTV had live reportsand speeches from five campaign headquarters and, as has beenthe practice since the news channel was launched, Chicago Tribunewriters and editors offered their analysis and insight during interviewsfrom the television stage in the main newsroom of the newspaper. For comparison purposes,cable has over 60 million subscribers.
Reno, F. Federalistsand Anti-Federalists may debate the structure of their governmentnightly, but these debates occur in newsgroups or chat rooms ratherthan in pamphlets. Modern-day Luthers still post their theses, butto electronic bulletin boards rather than the door of the WittenbergSchlosskirche. More mundane but from a constitutional perspective,equally important dialogue occurs between aspiring artists, or Frenchcooks, or dog lovers, or fly fishermen. The Governmentmay not, through the CDA, interrupt that conversation.
As the mostparticipatory form of mass speech yet developed, the Internet deservesthe highest protection from governmental intrusion. Times , Mar. For daily news, J-Lab found that the number of stories declined 7.
This means there were six additional columns of public affairs news inthe Daily News for August , equivalent to one additional full pageplus one additional column for the month. For the same period in all four stations aired only 38 minutes, 58 seconds, a 16 percentdrop.
Zeljanz works very well for me. What helps you?! Roast me. Ibrutinib is indicated for Del17p and p53 patients with CLL. The development of early transient increase in lymphocytosis with Ibrutinib indicates treatment failure in CLL. Not sure if I could have kept my chin up like my bros did!! Niece looks too young! Fantastic resource for all questions. Are you going to continue to advertise on his show? She is in her teens now. And my step dad has Crohns also. I have thyroid disease.
ACA was worthless. AbbVie also the tap pass shit lock phone all. I hope I get something else. Can you assist??
Putting patients first and easing their journey with disease. The man didn’t know where he was. AMGEN you need to fix this!!!! Good luck in the upcoming Amgen TOC!
I will never use your products if you fund FireColbert! It’s so hard to find things that don’t increase output”. Do you care that Americans do?! Will check it out. The boycott of your company has only begun. I’m just trynna get to my fucking car. Great turnout of members to tonight’s event. Even if my phone battery gets totally killed.
Just askin’. Market, price still unclear. Nice to see Amgen back in Patterson.. Dealer: “”You worked at Amgen.
You’re fucking smart! Come join our Oncology Team and Grow Beyond! She sent this link to me to share as Tickets are still available. Purchase yours today! What was your favorite part of the meeting? Then peek inside our Foundational Neuroscience Center. Abciximab, adalimumab, gemfibrozil? Over several decades this inflammation can lead to cirrhosis.
Looks like you’re going to need it. Like a Conservative hepatitis C. Then pops a OxyContin and drinks. When hepatitis C chronically infects Get tested for hepatitis C. It’s costing taxpayers millions. Comparing hepatitis C treatments to provide real info for treatment decisions. Have you? What is going on? The most common way hepatitis C is transmitted is via injection drug use. Good news, Kentucky now leads the nation in Hepatitis C infection rate.
We’re hiring in Baltimore, MD! It’s a chronic viral infection that affects All articles are OPEN! We’ve committed to eliminating hepatitis C. It’s so worth it! Makes me function better. Uveitis Way better than Humira. Class action in waiting but FDA should be named they know and still permit it.
Basically – humanized mouse antibodies replace mine. Probably the humira. Now I’ll be healthy enough for big summer shows! Is that too much to ask for? Looking forward to finding out more! IBD ulcerativecolitis. It’s one of the meds that’s really helped me! Their ads are so repetitive that I dont even have arthritis but I want to ask about Humira. Does Humira work? I’m on minimal meds because of Martial Arts. Damn stomach.
Was hoping there’d be something better down the road :. Very confident. Has anyone gotten many infection after being on Humira? I’m having a hard time finding a doctor versed in it. Should I look into Humira? Humira rep looking why! Off Humira 8 weeks and lymphocytes recoverd somewhat. Humira would have killed me. I was on humira for 2 years, but the biggest thing that’s helped me was diet, supplements,. I am now taking Humira, sulfasalazine, plaquinel, and methotrexate Plummeted by lymphocytes been biologic free 6mo.
I’m sorry it’s being a bitch to you. I’m the face of IBD. Diagnosed with UC at 31yrs old. And I have a Humira bruise from last night. Wonder how long my yellow fever vaccine is good for. Doc wants to start me on Humira for crohn’s :. Infliximab, Etanercept, Humira and now Cimzia. Not excited for that again. More stable on aza but not in remission. I feel I can live my life to the fullest with it. IBDHour Humira currently.
Funding always applied for and came back quickly. GI nurse showed me how to correctly inject Humira Humira was discussed in my first appt. Applied for that same day. Asacol tablets which I reacted too then steroids, pentasa granules, azathioprine, infliximab then humira IBDHour. I just wish there were more options here that didn’t sound so bad. Now he Its been a bad Idk what’s going on with you are Humira, but y’all need to chill. I’ve watched 5 minutes of show since My physio is on hold and struggling to walk to shops.
University of Michigan. University of Michigan Medical School. Blockage is gone. No surgery needed. This is worth it, right? Any ideas? I keep hearing Enbrel. Over preparing is not a bad thing for us!
I was shooting up in airline water closet Enbrel, that is. I’ve had at least 3 videos with minute long ads this morning, no skip option for Enbrel I’m dropping you quick! Especially the ones u can’t skip. Who the fuck on YouTube is thinking about some damn Enbrel?
I’m on Benepali, used to be Enbrel, and it’s life changing. Humira won in Q1. In most countries it is much less. Will probably be increasing dosages of methotrexate, prednisone, and Enbrel. Checking the tire pressure? That’s what you are doing? I don’t even do that. Enbrel is crappy by comparison. Hopefully if I ever get better insurance. So strange how all our bodies and diseases are so different.
I start Enbrel autoinjector tomorrow. I have a big fear of needles so I’m not diff to anyone tho. Love enbrel! I had to list all things tried before they gave me enbrel! Wished I got enbrel earlier!
That’s beer money I said fuck that. The nurse showed me how to do it. It sure takes that needle awhile to do it’s thing. And I don’t like needles. My SpoonieChat folks get a taste of it with Mickelson Enbrel stuff. Marquis de Sade.. Twisted me 6 ways from Satan!
I was never offered it. But Enbrel on deck, i have faith this will be the one!
Full text of “Win Awenen Nisitotung ()”
Николь молчала несколько секунд, проговорил Арчи, – отозвался Ричард. Я буду жить здесь, у меня есть еще внуки! Как это могло случиться. Но, он приподнял ее и радостно завопил: – Ма-ма, который любой разумный инопланетянин вынесет человеку, что случилось сегодня, казавшегося в надежном удалении от бомб, – проговорил октопаук. – Не хочу больше врать .
THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF COMMUNITIES – Free Press.
For more information visit the Internship Program Fact Sheet. Interested students should visit www. This one year developmental program is intended to promote careers in the civil service to individuals who, within the previous two years, graduated from qualifying educational institutions with an associates, bachelors, masters, professional, doctorate, vocational or technical degree or certificate.
Participants in the Recent Graduates Program receive a minimum of 40 hours of training and professional development, complete an individual development plan and are assigned a mentor.
Additionally, upon successful completion of the program, they will be eligible for conversion to full-time federal employment. Recent graduates who have completed, within the previous two years, a qualifying associates, bachelors, masters, professional, doctorate, vocational or technical degree or certificate from a qualifying educational institution.
Veterans unable to apply within two years of receiving their degree, due to military service obligation, have as much as six years after degree completion to apply.
The Presidential Management Fellowship PMF Program is a prestigious, paid, two-year leadership development program for individuals who have received a qualifying advanced degree within the preceding two years. If you are entitled to veterans preference, you should indicate the type of veterans preference you are claiming on your resume.
Although veterans preference points are not assigned under the category rating procedures described under “How You Will Be Evaluated”, veterans preference eligibles are listed ahead of non-veterans within each category for which they are qualified.
As a new or existing federal employee, you and your family may have access to a range of benefits. Your benefits depend on the type of position you have – whether you’re a permanent, part-time, temporary or an intermittent employee. You may be eligible for the following benefits, however, check with your agency to make sure you’re eligible under their policies.
Veterans’ Preference Documentation: Veterans must demonstrate that they have been discharged or released from active duty under honorable conditions i. Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty DD indicating type of discharge ; or other official documentation e.
If you are currently on active duty, a statement from the appropriate Branch Personnel Office containing the following information: Name, Rank, Branch of Service, Active Duty time, Projected Separation Date and type of anticipated discharge must be provided. Documentation to support a disability must reflect the overall evaluation or percentage disability rating.
Veterans must also demonstrate that they have been discharged or released from active duty under honorable conditions i. Resume showing relevant experience cover letter optional. Failure to follow this format may result in disqualification. Note: If you are selected for this position, official transcript s will be required prior to your first day. Documentation from the educational institution verifying current enrollment with at least a half-time course load.
This documentation may be a Current Enrollment Verification Certificate, statement of current enrollment or acceptance letter which verifies all of the required information in the Qualifications Section. SF for proof of prior LEO coverage, if applicable.
Failure to provide these documents could possibly result in removal from consideration for this vacancy. We cannot be held responsible for incompatible software, delays in mail service, applicant application errors, etc.
Education must be accredited by an accrediting institution recognized by the U. Department of Education in order for it to be credited towards qualifications. Failure to provide all of the required information as stated in this vacancy announcement may result in an ineligible rating or may affect the overall rating.
You must apply through the online application system at www. Follow the prompts to register, answer a few questions and submit all required documents. NOTE: Submission of a resume alone is not a complete application.
Please carefully review the complete job announcement and the “How to Apply” instructions. Claiming Veterans Preference? If yes, you MUST claim preference on-line during the application process and upload documentation to support preference claimed. Failure to claim Veterans Preference or provide supporting documentation may result in you not receiving appropriate consideration during the assessment process.
Supporting documentation for announcements with an application limitation MUST be uploaded the same day you apply, as these positions may close earlier than stated in the announcement.
Paper applications: If applying online is impossible, please contact the Consolidated Staffing Unit at the telephone number listed below, prior to the closing date of the announcement for the alternate application procedure. We will notify you of the outcome after each step of the application process has been completed. The referral certificate or list of eligibles will then be issued to the selecting official for further consideration.
The Human Resource Office may then contact you for an interview if they wish. We expect to make a final job offer within 80 days after the closing date of the announcement. Applicants referred on a certificate of eligibles may receive an Inquiry of Availability OF-5 Form via e-mail, mail or a telephone inquiry from the local Human Resource Department. Failure to either return the form or contact the Human Resource Department will result in a loss of consideration for the position. The Federal hiring process is set up to be fair and transparent.
The USPS has , vehicles one of the largest civilian fleets in the world and someone has to be able to maintain them and keep them up and running. What would they do without Vehicle Maintenance positions? These positions include: Lead …. We will finish up with the U. Secret Service. The Secret Service was originally part of the U. Department of Treasury. It was put under DHS in