Canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail. Village Post April 2022


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If you are looking for something to do on July 1, head canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail any of the below-mentioned festivities to help get lgin in the Canadian spirit. On Sunday, July 1, you can expect an impressive line-up of local performers, family-friendly activities, and multicultural programming.

Celebrate Canada Day in Port Renfrew. They will be hosting their own carnival this year Avncouver lots of activities for all members of jol family, including a parade. Everyone is welcome to take part in the parade.

Decorate canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail car, trailer, bike, face, dog, etc. Prizes will be given out for best floats.

The parade starts at the Wild Renfrew Prime ministers speech Centre and ends at Beach Camp where the float winners will be announced with games and hot dogs.

Celebrate Canada Day in Sidney. Start the day with a pancake breakfast amfollowed by the annual parade — Once the parade completes its route, people are encouraged canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail move to Iroquois Park to join in the Family Fun Fair — pm where the fun continues.

Enjoy a variety of activities for the entire family including an inflatable obstacle course, carnival-style games, dog show, watermelon eating contest, and so much more! For more information, please visit the Gorge Canada Day Picnic isoand.

Clap your hands, or dance avncouver silly to the live music throughout the day. Be a kid again, jump in and take part in all the fun caanada. Enjoy the food and snacks at the concession, but remember to leave a bit of room for a piece of the HUGE cake.

Town of Lake Cowichan Festivities start at 11 A. Food, Music, Arts and Cultural activities and fun for kids until 3 P. Youbou in Arbutus Park starts at 10 am Food, Music, activities and molt for kids until 2pm. Honeymoon Bay at the Honeymoon Bay Hall starts at am, with scholarship awards at am. Cake, Music, and award presentations until 2 P. Mesachie Lake at the Skydome Park, islanc, cake, Music, activities and fun jlt kids 6pm to 8pm. Waterwheel Park sets the stage for this annual family-friendly event where there is a little something for everyone, no matter your age!

All the events take place between 11 am — 3 pm, leaving lots of time for you to simply enjoy a day in the park dressed in red and white. The town of Ladysmith will be hosting a fun celebration this year.

There will be kids games and gjail, live music, a giant cake, and more! This event is FREE to attend. Lots of events and live entertainment happening all day long. /27916.txt activities include face painting, crafts, games, bouncy castles, kayaking, balloon animals, magic, dance performances, and much more! The day ends with the fabulous grand finale fireworks, sponsored by Thrifty Foods. Add in food trucks, concessions, and artisan booths and it will be a full day of family fun.

The family day event starts with an early morning pancake breakfast and ends with a street dance later that night! Further information, including times and location of all events, can be found on the Comox Valley Canada Day website.

This Canada Day event has a full day of activities, starting with a pancake breakfast and ending with a Festival of Lights display. Fun for жмите сюда ages. Further information, including times of all events, can be found canaca the Campbell River Canada Day Event website. The parade features many creative floats all of which start on Stamp Avenue outside of the Catalyst Parking lot.

The Parade will start at the sound of the Steam Whistle around am from the Baldwin Steam Train which will be about 1. Canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail at the Quay, the party takes over islxnd many vendors set up for all to enjoy!

Events happen all day and into the evening gmaik Harbour Canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail.

Head to the Village Green from — pm for some Canada Day festivities. Expect artisans, kids activities, local vendors, Islwnd hot dog BBQ, and live music. If you know of any other Canada Day Celebrations on Vancouver Island, please let me know in the comments below.

Thank you for the reminder. Honeymoon Bay at the Honeymoon Bay Hall starts at 10am, with scholarship awards at am. Love receiving your email every Friday although it makes me realize how fast a week goes by! Oh no! And I got this too late I was out enjoying all those festivities.

I actually did a search for Ladysmith when I wrote this post, but nothing came up. Perhaps I was a islahd too early. Thank you for letting me know! I hope you had a wonderful Canada Day. Thank you for being a читать далее reader!

And yes, I quite agree…the weeks do fly by just a little too fast. Dqy my name, jjolt, and canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail in this browser for the next time I comment. This site uses Akismet to reduce /27846.txt. Learn how your comment data is processed. Oh, Canada! Our home and native land… Vancouver Islanders sure know how to celebrate this glorious country we live in. Vancouver Island Fall Bucket List Spring Break Activities Best Romantic Restaurants on Vancouver Island Bonnie Morgan 3 years ago Reply.

It would have been vancoyver to see Port Alberni on the list as we have many events happening. Kim Parcher 3 years ago Reply. Katherine Worsley 3 years ago Reply. Youbou in Arbutus Park starts at 10 am Food, Music, activities and fun for kids until 2pm Honeymoon Bay at the Honeymoon Bay Hall starts at 10am, with scholarship awards at am.

Thank you so much for all the info!! Cathy : 5 years ago Reply. Kim Post Islan 5 years ago Reply. Write A Comment Cancel Reply. Submit Type above and press Enter to search. Press Usa jobs federal jobs government jobs opensea login facebook app to cancel.


Canada Day Vancouver Island.Village Post April by Post City Magazines – Issuu

Jolt Support Customer Secure Login Page. Login to your Jolt Support Customer Account. Jul 01,  · The pathway we take on Canada Day shines a light on people in Canada as well as on Canadian diversity inclusion and youth. 13 hours agoCanada Day North . Join gaming communities, share your fan-created art, guides, and videos, and follow the games that matter to you.


Canada day vancouver island 2048 game jolt login gmail

Hits on the new Web page totaled 3, visits for June, July, and August. Please call Fred Forecasts, estimates, and certain information contained herein are based upon proprietary research and should not be considered as investment advice or a recommendation of any particular security, strategy or investment product. OTT Financial is a financial services company founded in Toronto in


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So why do it now if you can do it a year from now. But I believe that supply will rise over the next year or so as people start realizing that maybe this trajectory of prices will not continue.

So they have this incredible house, 24 and then they look at a condominium, and. You know, kind of like all of our favourite characters on Friends.

You know, they were living the life in New York City because of a rent-controlled apartment. You need public policy that will drive forward affordable housing in the development process and it can easily be delivered in partnership with private sector partners. We had affordable rental housing, we had market rental housing, we had co-operatives, we had community land trust. It was really a diverse suite of different housing types that appealed to different income levels and people who had different needs at different stages of their life.

We sort of stopped that, and we only built housing for a really significant period of time. You know, I. Summerhill — Out of a storybook The home at 75 Macpherson Ave. Rosedale — Country cottage charm This quaint stone home at 7 Rosedale Rd.

York Mills — Modern showstopper 12 Pembury Ave. Forest Hill — Backyard with potential 33 Hawarden Cres. It was listed on Dec. Vaughan — Luxury estate Israel Zilber Dr. It was then downloaded onto the private sector and provincial governments and municipal governments.

You know, it satisfies a market that can afford them and that wants to live in square feet or square feet, and some of them are even two bedrooms at square feet. That is not a family residence. But we worked on a project that was launched as a condominium. It stopped and it was relaunched as a rental building.

The building is almost finished. I mean, purpose-built rentals now are luxury rentals. They are not affordable rentals, and they are not big rentals. Even their biggest units are not big units. So could you fit a family in? Maybe, but it would not be great living. Good, good, good. POST: Benjamin? There were students, They were non-permanent residents.

For them, it was a change in status, not a change of address. But one thing is, if you look at how many people arrive, ,, how many of them are in construction? How many of them are trade?

So we have to fine-tune the skillset of new immigrants, not to be just computer engineers, but also construction workers and trades, because we desperately need them. We need nurses like oxygen. We got zero new nurses from , new immigrants. Another point. See how we compare up against some of the biggest cities worldwide, based on the average home price in each.

Averages are based on the most recent housing data available in each city converted to Canadian dollars. I think, given the recent news. And by the way, the year average is around ,, so things are moving in the right direction. With immigration numbers, people are shocked to hear that Canada had over , new immigrants during the pandemic in , again, driving up the demand. We simply cannot find people.

Good luck finding a plumber. Speak to any developer, they will tell you we cannot find people. Brings me to immigration: Yes, we got , new immigrants, but 70 per cent of them came from where? Where did they come from? From Canada. Seventy percent of new Canadians. POST: With such an active market, what does the federal government need to do, particularly in terms of interest rates to cool off the market?

Michele, what do you think? I think Canada often follows the U. I think people made some really good points around, I mean, if Canada was the most locked-down place, you really only had your home to be in. I think rate hikes will certainly cool down the market. The first is that many people have moved. I literally now have … I had a team that was per cent based in Toronto and many of those people have left.

And the second factor that is going to be here is this idea of the great resignation. They actually became [business] founders. And so, it will be interesting to see where they end up going because they will largely have control over where they live versus an employer historically dictating them.

But I think on the rates issue, I think we might have another quarter or two to see this, and then I think it will still be slow. How can we understand that? But the real crisis that we have yet to tackle is the deep affordable side, which no one has really cracked that, not yet. Their in-house acquisition and asset-management specialists attribute this success to the diversity of their portfolio, their ability to keep their finger on the pulse, and ultimately being able to act quickly on opportunities in major markets.

Taking an entrepreneurial approach to investing in real estate through which their team of more than 50 professionals employs; NWRE monitors industry trends and acts quickly. Preferring off-market opportunities, they use a creative lens to find opportunities to add value instead of just buying existing real estate to clip a rental coupon. While almost everyone can agree that real estate is an attractive investment these days, the team at Nicola Wealth has a few words of advice to help avoid common mistakes that can have significant impacts on your outcome.

From there, the real work begins where you need to understand mortgage financing, asset management, and leasing to maximize value. We have a team with specialists in all of these disciplines. We also look for multiple ways out of the room. But if there are existing buildings with holding cash flow income, you can continue to lease those buildings. From a leasing perspective, NWRE always looks at buildings with good leasing appeal that will attract a wide variety of tenants.

Remember that when markets turn, premier locations will typically offer more flexibility from leasing, sales, and liquidity standpoints. Finally, investors need to be prepared for the inevitable rise in interest rates. While investing in hard-asset real estate can reap rewards and tips from professionals can help you on your way; remember, it requires significant time,.

Messina says. This material is distributed for informational purposes only. Forecasts, estimates, and certain information contained herein are based upon proprietary research and should not be considered as investment advice or a recommendation of any particular security, strategy or investment product.

All investments contain risk and may gain or lose value. I think that, if you look at the numbers, only five per cent of the activity was actually more than kilometers away from Toronto. The IT sector is an exception, but the whole economy is not just IT. Now, second, interest rates.

Very exciting. Of course, it is exciting. And I think that the Bank of Canada will move. They will move next week. They will move in, you know, early March because they have no choice. They have no choice because inflation is way too high, and they cannot not do something about it. The only question is how quickly they will raise interest rates because they have to protect their reputation. And remember, at the end of the day, because people are talking about inflation of 10 per cent, 15 per cent, and this is very important for people who care about mortgage rates, this is not about inflation.

For 50 years, the Bank of Canada and the feds were building their reputation, their capability as inflation fighters. They will do whatever it takes. Normally, it does, obviously.

Certainly, there will be. And I think that governments here. They can impose foreign buyer taxes, and they always seem to focus on the demand side. But a lot of the demand is driven by demographics. Never mind immigration and people moving in.

So there are a lot of reasons why demand is always going to be there because people need to be housed. So I think the government should really focus more. You asked a question about regulations, I really focus on the supply side. What can they do to unblock supply? In Ontario, we had the task force come up with a bunch of suggestions, and I would just add on there that, how can we stimulate more of the affordable rental housing construction as well.

If interest rates go up slowly, the market can take it. It will not be 20 per cent a year. It will go down to something normal, stable because this market is extremely strong when it comes to the fundamentals. However, if you have a. But you are absolutely right: if interests go up very, very slowly, even if they go up , business points, the market can take it, and that would be a good thing.

And you also have to look forward. What about all the people that got … the immigrants that got taken. With home prices on the rise, first-time homebuyers in Toronto have had to get creative with financing their purchases. Average down payment gift size in Toronto during the first three quarters of for first-time homebuyers. Estimated amount of down payment gifts given in Canada in the past year, which accounts for 10 per cent of total down payments. Amount of Toronto gen Z adults expecting a financial gift from family to be the primary source of their down payment.

You want, when potential purchasers, homebuyers, come to look at your home, that it has to trigger curiosity. Just things that are different will tend to add value to the space. And I think that minor renovations, when it comes to the impact, all of that as a whole will trigger curiosity and raise the value of your home. And those are major renovations. Those are the renovations that will take your house from having multiple offers and multiple buyers, potentially, if you have a well-updated kitchen and bathroom, and it will change your life as the people living within those four walls.

POST: Odeen, go ahead. And then from a practicality and pragmatic 27 POST. Just anything to get whether it be in-laws in to pool their resources or to actually get extra income from a student or from a tenant. Right now as. For example, the danger you can run into is that you will find somebody, and they will probably start the job and they may or may not finish the job, and it may not even be their fault. It may be that the plumber just simply has gone that they were depending on.

It has just become impossible. You really want to hold on to the relationships you have. Odeen, I wanted to ask you about those ideas of housing migration and urban spread. What are you seeing outside of the Toronto area? The GTA is no longer for me. And a lot of them are able to do that, again, because of remote work. We actually opened an office in Prince Edward County because of the demand there. Guelph is now twice the.

Just a quick statistic, Guelph is now twice the price on average than Chicago. Now, my dad at the time was an entry-level blue-collar worker, and he was able to buy a home because his home was two times the annual salary. And his salary was actually an average salary in Well, it just holds to reason that the average person coming out of.

Once the pandemic began, work-from-home led to reports of Torontonians fleeing the city to enjoy the countryside without having to worry about the commute. But, for many residents, the choice to leave was a question of affordability. Our options were a one bedroom plus den condo on my street or a three bedroom townhome in Burlington for the same price.

I can walk to a performing arts centre, a museum. Both Kimberly and Justin have experienced comments from residents about Torontonians jacking up prices in their towns, but Kimberly says this is likely the future of Ontario. And if we assume that every home is going to have a family in it — and, you know, a dinner table at night where homework is spread out and kids are eating their dinner and chitchatting — instead of sitting empty, then we need to look at things like capital gains taxes, and we need to look at other ways that, currently, we actually incentivize people to use real estate as a financial tool.

We want to be a country where people can come and work hard and build a life and, you know, be able to meet their needs rather than worrying about shelter.

People might start parking their money in houses and not even living there. So I do think we have to really tackle that issue as a country. POST: Talking about housing as an investment, Brian, which segment of the market do you see as having the best returns right now? One of the things I was, you know, I was thinking when Jennifer was speaking is that people would be shocked if they knew how many homes are empty most of the year and condos are empty most of the year.

I was so excited. It was 11 per cent, it went to nine per cent. I just think our market is so strong. Back then it was the creative imagination of American bankers that came up with all those mortgages. Here we have stress test, we have all kinds of other things that clearly are a factor that will protect you from that. Having said that, I agree with the point that was made about too much investment. And I worry about it because those people will be the first to sell when interests rise or there is any issue.

We have to remember that the significant segment of investors are doing it not for the money. They are doing it for their kids, really. I have a year-old. I want him or her to have a chance to live in. But that was an economical correction. Everything since then was just intervention, media, Y2K, We thought things were going to go the other way. The mortgage rules, I was in favour of that.

Keeps us safe. Anyway, onward and on: immigration, what was the foreign buyer tax? But these are, like, just temporary stops. I mean, look at these investors. By Julia Mastroianni. What are your predictions for the year ahead?

You heard it here first. Buying a place on his own meant Ty needed to think strategically. Steve had been eyeing a new townhome development at St. Clair and Caledonia for him and his husband for years. In March of , the pair saw there were just a few units left and decided to put down a deposit.

But, the concern was then having to sell their current Yonge and Eglinton condo after buying. I think the market is still strong, as Brian was saying. I think that, when it comes to, given COVID, those who … in the past, we had our certain needs that we wanted, and the wants were sort of luxuries, and now those luxuries are musthaves. POST: Jennifer, any predictions? And I do remember two years ago when you asked us this question, and COVID was just starting to hit, and I think almost all of us had no idea, and in fact, a lot of people were predicting a downturn.

I always listen to what Benjamin has to say around where interest rates are going. I think you have to take those two things together. I hear what Brian is saying about people holding on to properties. POST: Do you think we should start thinking about interest rates going up? Do you see a risk in any segment of the market that might be particularly difficult? Toronto 10 years from now. I am buying now, although I am in a negative cash flow situation.

And they are right to suggest so because, quite frankly, 10 years from now, Toronto will be less affordable, not more affordable. I totally agree that some people are overinvested in too many properties with modest income. I worry about it. This is not the U. They may not own in Florida. They may be renting in Florida, but they are not here. And there is so much inventory that is just sitting here empty.

I have three properties. You could throw a dart at a map and you would make money if you held onto it for the next few years. I genuinely feel like people are going to be living in very different places and wanting very different things in their homes. Like, this is very new. And I liked what people said about, you know, people are creating new amenities.

But look, I think that the demographic and the tech demographic is going to be working from home for a very long time. And this.

So we need to put it under. There will be a small correction as interest rates rise but it will be temporary. Thank you. So, thank you. But I think unless we can somehow do something to incentivize sellers to sell instead of just really collecting properties — which, I mean, a lot of us are guilty of because, again, it just makes sense — but I think with the increased sort of information being wide-.

All pools leak eventually. Security and elevators also mean high maintenance costs; all of that can add up quickly. Ideal investor units are to square feet based on their saleability, and they earn the most rent per square foot. Another tip: buy in the middle.

I only buy from floor plans in new developments at the earliest opportunity. Two years after a building is completed is generally the point of the highest rate of return based on appreciation, assuming you bought from floor plans four years prior to completion.

Lockers for apartment spaces are good, smart and useful buys because they eventually sell out. In large cities, parking is a dying part of the housing complex, and more and more buildings will have less and less parking. Always buy the locker. The parking space? We are mindful that the pandemic has severely impacted many people across our city. Post City Magazines and.

Generally speaking, whether you buy it in a downturn, an upturn or flat market, hold the property for at least 25 years. The returns on invested capital will be 15 to 25 per cent a year. People often want south exposure, but south exposure can be hot year round. West is the worst exposure because the sun bakes you six hours a day.

For me, the best is northern exposure, because you get reflected light and brightness. Lamb Realty. I think if we can get to that mentality in Toronto, I think it would solve an enormous amount of the housing issues, if we can get the mindset to change from there being a sense of entitlement to ownership of properties within what is a major city. People rent. And there are all these magnificent buildings in the core of our city just sitting there empty.

And will they or will they not ever be populated the way they were before? Will it make sense to bring people back simply because the buildings exist? Can those buildings be evaluated in what it would take to turn them from commercial into residential?

No idea what really is going to happen. Nobody does. COVID will end. Will that bring everybody back to the office in droves? I think though we have a tale of two markets here, I think on the private sector side or the ownership side. I agree with what everyone has said.

COVID exacerbated a lot of the issues that were already there. Although interest rates are a really big variable. And I think that the higher interest rate is growing slowly will slow the market. But I agree with Jennifer, the market is so undersupplied that the fundamentals are so strong. And that would be a very good thing. Mary Anne Shaw is very active in the community, and has served on many boards and foundations in the not-for-profit arts and health sectors.

She provides personal service and practical solutions. If you neglect to organize your personal affairs the costs to your estate or yourself personally may be significant.

To refresh your memory, a Will is your way to ensure that your property is distributed to the individuals and charities you would like to benefit on your death. The Will comes into force the day you die. To be valid, a Will must be in writing and signed by yourself in the presence of two witnesses.

There must be three people at the table to see each other sign. Sounds straightforward, but these formalities must be followed, otherwise the Will may not be valid. Your witnesses should not be persons also named in your Will to receive a gift, nor should either witness be the spouse of a person named to receive a gift in your Will. There have been recent additions to executing.

Wills as a result of Covid, which are of a technological nature and you should discuss those options with your lawyer. No time for the formalities of a proper Will? In a pinch, you may make a Holograph Will. This is a less formal document, entirely handwritten by you, signed and dated by you at the end of the document. If all these particulars are followed, it may be valid.

Not only do you have to follow the formalities highlighted here, but you have to word the document correctly so that everyone understands it. Furthermore, if you type your Will out on the computer, then print, date and sign it, this Will may not be recognized as a valid Holograph will as it is not in your own handwriting. Then your estate is back at square one and your property will be distributed in accordance with the Succession Law Reform Act.

BIO Dr. His mission is to provide comprehensive dental services to all patients in an environment that is safe, reassuringly pleasant and comfortable. What he enjoys most about dentistry is meeting and interacting with patients and providing an essential service. April is Oral Health Month, a good time of year to take stock of your oral care routine and understand how proper oral health can have an impact on your overall well-being.

This April, consider the preventive steps you can take to make sure your mouth and the rest of your body are healthy throughout the year. Good oral hygiene is important for many reasons. Sore or bleeding gums, missing teeth, infections, and oral pain can all affect your ability to eat and talk.

These problems can have an influence on the type of food you eat and the enjoyment you get from eating. They can also make you feel self-conscious and limit your ability to socialize. Plus, while we often think of our mouth as a separate part of our body, research reveals a connection between our oral health and certain chronic diseases, such as stroke, heart disease, and diabetes.

Along with watching what you eat, you also want to practise proper oral hygiene habits. These habits include keeping your mouth clean by brushing and flossing every day. Brush your teeth and your tongue twice a day for two minutes. Make sure you clean the outer, inner, and chewing surfaces of your teeth.

Of course, brushing is only part of the routine. You need to keep up with regular dental visits. Many people will need to see their dentists every six months for a routine cleaning and examination. During the cleaning, your dental professional will use special tools to remove tartar from your teeth. Your teeth will then be polished to help remove surface stains and flossed to make sure all areas are clean.

During the exam, your dental professional will check for cavities, inspect your gums, and examine your tongue, throat, neck, face, and head for signs of swelling or redness. If you want a chance to buy this 24,square-foot residence at 30 Fifeshire Rd. Look no further than these three stunning homes on the market and what they sold for 15 years ago. This four-bedroom, five-bathroom home at 15 Castle Frank Cres. The home at 82 Elgin St.

BIO Cheryl Goldhart is a certified specialist in Family Law with over 30 years of experience practicing exclusively in the field. She specializes in complex, high conflict and high net worth cases. A matrimonial home is the home ordinarily occupied by spouses as their family residence at the date of separation. You can have more than one matrimonial home ex: a house and a cottage.

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However, if the parties lived in the same house on the date of marriage and date of separation, then the homeowning spouse will not be able to deduct the value of the residence from their net family property. The law provides for an equal right of possession, not ownership. The ownership of the matrimonial home is determined by which spouse holds title. To avoid unexpected results on separation, many homeowners opt to enter into a Marriage Contract to modify the legislated property regime and ensure that the matrimonial home is dealt with as the spouses intend upon a separation.

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Generally, upon separation, spouses are entitled to deduct the value of their assets on the date of marriage from the value of their assets on the date of separation to decrease their net family property.

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This lower penthouse condo at Bayview Ave. The three-level property at Lowther Ave. Enjoy deep water off the dock and miles of incredible boating on Muskoka, Joe and Rosseau. The setting is exceptionally private. The property contains a sq ft family cottage with 3 bedrooms, 1. Many options for buyers: use the cottage this summer, renovate or start planning your perfect architectural vision. One of the best locations in Muskoka!

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I love the styling of the arched platform here as well. The least expensive items at T. These are the least expensive finds at some of the top luxury clothing stores across Toronto.

The resale sneaker industry has strong roots in the city, and Out This World OTW is one of the most popular stores for fashion lovers looking for a pristine pair of Jordan 1s. With locations in Scarborough, Montreal, Brampton and now Yorkville right next door to some of the biggest luxury brands on the Mink Mile, owner Julian Artjukow talks starting out on eBay and blending streetwear with designer wear.

Why did you start Out This World? With that experience on hand, I decided to open up OTW in the heart of Mississauga in , as I realized there was a demand for hype sneakers and streetwear. I started with roughly 50 pairs of sneakers, and within a few months, we had over 1, pairs as we started to do consignment.

At the time, I had a mo-. You recently opened a new location in Yorkville. How did you decide on that spot? As fashion trends constantly change, I noticed many people starting to blend designer and streetwear together.

I was offered a unit in between Prada, Coach and Dior, which was a no-brainer! Many of our customers will stop by to match their outfit with a pair of sneakers. Even though COVID has been a difficult time for business, it was a blessing in disguise in terms of looking for locations as there are many more options. Yorkville is one of the prime locations in Canada for fashion, and I always wanted to have a store within the area.

Where do you source your items from? We have connections that we have built up over time with others in the city and the country who continue to sell us sneakers. How has the streetwear world grown in Toronto since you started OTW?

As people express their styles through clothing and sneakers, curated fashion is becoming more popular. Many people like to feel unique and express it through that special pair or piece of clothing. The streetwear world has become generational. When I first started there were only male teenagers entering my store. Now we have teenagers, parents and even grandparents that shop with us. It is amazing to see how quickly it has grown.

Located at 63 Ossington Ave. The price range at Versace at Yorkville Ave. As is typical of high-end retail, your most affordable option is luxury underwear. Fashionably Yours. This designer consignment store at Queen St. Eventually, the opportunity presented itself to open their Bloor brick-and-mortar location. Tatyana and Terri are also eager to host workshops led by vendors in the coming months.

The 1,square-foot space is well lit and inviting, complete with a small kitchenette near the back. When the pandemic began and everyone was shuttered inside with nowhere to go, Tatyana was unable to continue working as a makeup artist and pivoted to selling vintage clothes online. This venture was immensely successful—so successful, in fact, that she had to rent a studio to house all her merchandise.

Meanwhile, Terri had long been running knitting workshops and, when everything jumped. Angelo Staggolis is dedicated to the treatment and prevention of injury and chronic conditions that impede access to a full, healthy, boundlessly active life. From evaluation to treatment to maintenance, Dr. Welcoming new patients sidelined by injury, both in elite competition and everyday function. Rookie of the year? It seems as if the stars have aligned for Michael Bunting.

The year old GTA native born in Scarborough is living the dream most young hockey players can only long for: suiting up in the blue and white jersey of his childhood heroes, gliding onto the ice underneath flashing lights and the sounds of screaming fans across North America.

His consideration, too, seems like a lucky bounce. Just like scoring a nice goal in front of the net, he was on the right path to be in the right place at the right time. He attended Blessed Cardinal Newman Catholic school and spent evenings and weekends playing and practicing, playing double-A hockey with the Toronto East Enders, then later the Scarborough Young Bruins. He was the kind of kid who played a little bit of every sport, including soccer and softball as a child and baseball, badminton, tennis and volleyball in high school.

But hockey was always number one. So getting the call to play for his favourite team was a true storybook moment. Michael Bunting left made it just under the wire by two days to be eligible for the Calder Trophy. The play call, they think, should be reversed. It could be the thing that undermines his impressive performance, effectively erasing the fact that Bunting scored a hat trick against Seider and Raymond in a Jan.

No matter how it plays out, Bunting is just happy to be playing where he is, playing for the team that was home to some of his favourite players of all time growing up. Sports website The Score lists Zegras as the prime rookie of the year candidate. The website slots Bunting into third place in the Calder Trophy race, noting that his age could be a major detractor when it comes to. It was that era of him and Tie Domi; they were so fun to watch. He would contribute offensively.

To be eligible for the Calder Trophy, a player must not be older than 26 years old on Sept. Eligibility rules also require the player to have appeared in less than 25 games in a single preceding season or six or more games in any two preceding NHL seasons. His time with the Coyotes saw Bunting appear in 21 games last season where he scored 16 points , and five games two seasons ago.

And then everything came out in the media. So then I started learning that I am eligible. Take the decades-spanning efforts to downplay and deny the evidence of human-caused climate disruption — efforts that have accelerated in recent days, as the fossil fuel industry and its political and media allies cynically use the Russia-Ukraine crisis to advocate for increased development and expansion of the products and infrastructure they tout.

He did halt Russian alcohol. AIMCo has also committed to divesting its Russian holdings. Those with power often exploit the uneducated and uninformed to further their own ends — and in many cases work to degrade education systems to prevent people from acquiring critical thinking and logic skills.

The excuse that the world will need fossil fuels for years to come. So why do they so strenuously oppose what is clearly necessary? Part of it may be fear — fear of change, of losing illusory power and wealth, of having to think differently. Some of it is ego. Interested in learning more about David Suzuki? The book details his experiences as a young boy in British Columbia, his education and his work to bring attention to climate change.

You can find it at your local bookstore! Located in a little valley amongst the rolling hills of beautiful OroMedonte, Glen Oro Farm offers a stunning eco-retreat that allows you to sleep under the stars in a bubble dome. To further unwind, the property houses a cedar barrel sauna heated by a Finnish wood stove.

But the real magic comes at night, when the. With the goal of allowing guests to appreciate the natural beauty of Long Point, while also sustaining the ecosystems and habitats that thrive in the region, Long Point Eco Adventures has built out an incredible — and sustainable — glamping experience.

The wilderness suites, cabins and pods allow for a memorable stay amongst the flora, fauna and unique shorelines of the Biosphere Reserve. The pods offer an amazing opportunity for guests to come and stay in groups, sharing a private fire pit and outdoor shower with their cluster, while still having individual units to retire to at night.

Nestled away in Muskoka, Retreet offers rustic cabin experiences that truly allow you to immerse yourself in nature. From off-the-grid tree houses to stunning A-frames, the property extends over 12 acres and is a haven of stunning greenery, a meandering river and plenty of wildlife. Riverside Oasis Farm offers a unique glamping experience where you can stay in a traditional Mongolian yurt and hang out with the alpacas, goats and sheep at the farm.

With an emphasis on respect for the land, for community and for the utilization of local resources, this destination allows you to connect with a more traditional way of life. This retreat is perfect for couples or for families with young kids with a passion for nature. Association fees approx. Come see what this rare beauty has to offer.

Where the Forest meets the Lake! Nature enthusiasts will revel in this unique setting amongst the internationally-recognized Carolinian Forest of Point Abino.

The sound of birds singing at dawn. The smell of campfire. The way the stars illuminate the night sky. These are a few of my favourite things. Our beautiful Earth is filled with so many wonders that are so easy to take for granted as we go about our day-to-day lives. Reconnecting with nature brings me to a place of peace — and it is within these smaller moments that I feel most serene. Thankfully, Ontario is filled with so many incredible outdoor experiences that allow for just that: reconnecting with nature.

Not only are they incredibly fun and naturally beautiful, but these accommodations focus on sustainability. Cox has been there from the start, 10 years ago, when she began as the host, and has since added executive producer to her title. But Cox says the path to where she is now was anything but linear. As a student in the Claude Watson Arts program at Earl Haig Secondary School since Grade 4, Cox says she was a jack of all trades, enjoying making art, singing, dancing and performing.

I was not! After high school, Cox entered journalism school at Carleton University. It was there that she fell in love with TV journalism. Then, in , she was named the host of Big Brother Canada ahead of its inaugural season, 13 years after the U. That has been true for her role on Big Brother Canada, especially since her new position as executive producer on the show. Cox has been outspoken about increasing diversity on the show, and her influence has clearly made an impact.

This season features 10 of 16 house members who are people of colour, including Jay Northcott of Toronto. The range of backgrounds is making for really rich stories. After the trip, we were both sad to see each other go. I was hesitant about starting a long-distance relationship, and after visiting each other back and forth, it became clear that one of us would have to move to keep what we had going. The pets. Sunny with a chance of love at first date Global News meteorologist shares how an Instagram-famous dog helped him find love For over 20 years, Ross Hull has been delivering to Canadians the weather news they need as a meteorologist for the top news outlets across the country.

Since moving to Toronto, Hull has worked at Global News. How they met. Rodson travelled with Jasper from Calgary to Toronto in July for a social media pet influencer event. We remained in contact online, and we both felt there was. A year later, we finally met in person in Toronto for our first date! By , Rodson not only had Jasper [the pomsky], but he had added Louie [the eskiemute] to his pack, so double trouble!

That coincided with him looking to make a change in his own personal career as a project manager. So in August of , Rodson decided to make the big move to Toronto! I had met the boys during my visits in Calgary and fell in love with them, but all of us being together in Toronto on a regular basis really cemented my role in the pack as daddy number two. I had always wanted to do a road trip through the Maritimes, so I booked some time off in to do just that.

After a year of getting to know Rodson virtually, I knew he also wanted to see that part of the country, and he had some friends in Toronto to visit. The pandemic certainly brought this relationship challenge to the forefront — Two Men and Two Fur Babies would be the name of the sitcom.

Trying to manage his. Surprisingly, he said yes! For the record, to date we have both never missed a deadline and no wardrobe malfunctions either, except trying to get Jasper into his many outfits when he is growing his fluffy winter coat. Direct: Office: Email: ijaskiewicz trebnet. Designed by the famed Canadian architect Gordon Ridgely, this exquisite property is truly incomparable.

The private grounds have an undeniable sense of European opulence with unobstructed West views of the Rosedale Golf Club. To book a private showing, please call Adam Brind or Amy Richardson. Visit: bayviewridgeestate. This drama, nominated for five Lucille Lortel awards, is about community, family and the education system. The play, which explores family ties in the year 40, BCE and utilizes a musical Neanderthal language, runs until April The Toronto waterfront has a new big top tent on the shores of Lake Ontario in advance of the opening of a new Cirque du Soleil show set to run from April 14 until at least July Response to the show has been positive, and the show has already been extended beyond its original engagement.

Once the inventor succeeds to unlock the door to this world of wonders, time comes to a complete stop and an uplifted cast of otherworldly characters invades his curio cabinet, bringing his makeshift creations to life one by one. As the visible becomes invisible and perspectives transform, KURIOS bursts into a celebration of the power of the imagination.

Since then, the release has garnered critical acclaim around the world. In times of heartache, grief, deep love, or confusion, I look to the natural world for answers. This is what came through. Aging hipsters unite!

Fabulous Toronto band Broken Social Scene helped define a musical generation, and it is back for more. The indie rock band helped make the city the centre of the musical universe when it burst onto the, ahem, scene back in the very early s. After 20 years, the band is set to play Massey Hall for the first and second time on April 20 and These shows will be epic and are not to be missed. Go to www. Grammy Award—winning artist Lorde arrives back in town for a pair of back-to-back shows at Meridian Hall on April 8 and 9.

Lorde surprised many with her latest stripped-down album, Solar Power, when it was. Room is a story about resilience, the power of. This co-production of the Grand Theatre in London, Ont. The stage adaptation was further developed by Emma Donoghue and Cora Bissett in the summer of at the Grand. For information, go to www. The return of Franken. Former U. Senator Currently on Tour tour. Senate in Factory This landmark west end theatre opens its doors for the first time this season with the world premiere production of Among Men.

It runs April 23 to May Part satire, part sacred rite, the play asks what value stories have for a world in crisis. The show, directed by co-founder Ted Dykstra, runs from April 3 to May Rarely does a home of this caliber in a prime location become available!

The new show is created, co-written and co-produced by Parris. Toni Shakur, who is an unapologetic fixer for Black onscreen talent. Related Papers. Restoring fire suppressed Texas oak woodlands to historic conditions using prescribed fire.

Wildland fire in Alaska: a history of organized fire suppression and management in the last frontier. Masters, Krista E. Galley, and Don G. Galley, and D. Despain eds. Tall Timbers Miscellaneous Publication No. Individual extended abstract: Alexander, M. Page 8 in R. Masters, K.

Printed by Allen Press, Inc. Christensen Tall Timbers Misc. Northern Rocky Mountains Ohlen and Don G. Andrews and T. Alexander and Miguel G. Cruz and Martin E. Fromm, D. Lindsey, B. Stocks, R. Servranckx, and D. Miller, Roy A. Renkin, Sean C. McEldery, and Timothy J.

Butler, J. Forthofer, and D. Butler and D. Jimenez, B. Butler, K. Hiers, R. Ottmar, M. Dickenson, R. Kremens, J. Hudak, and C. Butler, D. Jimenez, J. Forthofer, M. Finney, L. Bradshaw, R.

Stratton, C. McHugh, and K. Charney, Warren E. Skowronski, Kenneth L. Clark, Matthew J. Duveneck, Ross F. Nelson, and John L. Engber and J. Hudak, Penelope Morgan, Sarah A. Lewis, Peter R. Robichaud, and Zachary A. Just and Christopher A. Dicus Tall Timbers Misc. Monsanto and James K. Kuljian, J. Schoessow and Daniel B. Tomback, Anna W. Schoettle, Kristen M. Grompone, Mario J. Tomback, Mario J. Perez, Kristen M. Grompone, and Anna W. Woolley, L. Ganio, D. Shaw, and S. Brisbin, Andrea E.

Andrade, Stephanie M. Marvez, Diana F. Tomback, and Anna W. Smithwick, Michael G. Ryan, Daniel M. Kashian, William H. Romme, Monica G. Turner, and Daniel B. Tinker, M. Turner, and W. Turner, Erica A. Smithwick, and Daniel B.

Tinker Tall Timbers Misc. Donato, Joseph B. Fontaine, John L. Campbell, W. Douglas Robinson, J. Krawchuk and Max A. Meigs and Beverly E. Rive, David F. Greene, and Brian D. Romme, and Gerald A.

Romme, Jacob M. Griin, Daniel B. Tinker, and Monica G. Baxter, Rachel L. Abatzoglou, Timothy J. Brown, Crystal A.

Cary, Robert E. Keane, and Mike D. Byun, Daegyun Lee, Warren E. Heilman, Joseph J. Northern Rockies Gibson, and James P. Marlon and Patrick J. McWethy, Cathy Whitlock, J. Wilmshurst, M. McGlone, and X. Kubian, R. Walker, and J. Renner, Terry K. Haines, and Margaret A. Alexander, Gregory J. Baxter, and Mark Y. Robichaud, Annette Parsons, Sarah A. Lewis, Andrew T. Ussery, M. Kwart, J. Passek, and C. Jimenez, P. Schlobohm, and B. Oswald, Michael H.

In these and other ways, the amazing experiences and revelations of inspired that most dubious of historical enterprises, the writing of history before it happens. In the intervening 20 years, things did change and history did happen. Most of the heat-of-the-moment commentary succumbed to the truism that news is not history. But many of the predictions had some truth in them.

If no books were actually rewritten, a great many were revised. If the institutions that manage our public lands were not reshaped, they were given an unforgettable jolt of deep scrutiny. Many of the principals of those days are now retired and have been replaced by younger and possibly smarter, more energetic people from many walks of life.

For those who chose to submit them, the extended abstracts replaced their shorter version for this volume; for those who did not, the short abstracts are included.

Anyone wishing more information is encouraged to begin a fruitful dialogue resulting in advances and new horizons for both parties. It came to pass through his perceptiveness and persistent prodding starting in Dick Bahr acted as liaison with federal agencies. Sarah Stevenson created the conference logo and other artwork that adorned the Web page, various brochures, notices, program guide, and proceedings.

Penelope Morgan was responsible for the expansive program. Bill Gabbert and Bill Ranieri kept the bills paid. Chuck Bushey made sure everything was available and in place. Deb Bahr arranged ield trips and social events for guests of participants as well as organizing the registration packets.

Roy Renkin organized and coordinated the ield trips and workshops. Michelle Ekstrom coordinated the exhibitors. Geneva Chong and Lori Iverson were our local agents and gave support that only a local could. Kaye Gainey and Lisa Baggett at Tall Timbers Research Station patiently assisted with abstract ile management and cross-checking the table of contents.

Financial and in-kind contributions were made by those organizations that are listed on the inside cover and title page. We are most grateful for their generosity. Without them there would be no conference or proceedings, and they have our sincerest thanks for their contributions. Tall Timbers Misc. I ofer my perspective as one of those individuals and as the superintendent of Yellowstone at the time.

We learned the importance of excellent communications with the public, the media, and our neighbors and about recognizing the limits of technology. For managers confronting these complex issues, it will be important to remember and assimilate lessons learned from the past. The lessons learned from that experience and fire management history continue to be relevant for managers.

We need to continue to adopt some of those lessons learned to confront the challenges of future fire management in a changing environment. The fire community will need to be cohesive as agencies face budget and other issues, long-term strategy planning, and full evaluations of the effects of past fire programs. The Nature Conservancy has found that it is possible to reconcile the fire-related needs of both ecosystems and people through a framework called Integrated Fire Management.

Come learn about community-based approaches to fire-related biodiversity threats in Mexico. Finding Solutions: Nature Conservancy staf and partners are exploring several approaches with the people of rural communities: Develop a community fire management plan, including a manual for conducting prescribed burns, generated with the general assembly, for each rural community. Construct thematic maps with farmers from the communities representing vegetation, fuel models, and fire management zones.

Conduct demonstration prescribed burns for forest and farming zones. Implement workshops that facilitate information exchange between rural communities. A wealth of Science said otherwise. Instead, the fires were doing the exact opposite, and assuring that the Yellowstone landscape would be perpetuated centuries into the future.

Indeed, during the fires and the following fall, telling the real story looked like a mistake that had higher odds of leading to the gallows rather than a medals ceremony. By —90, it slowly became apparent—largely through emerging sociological science—that the American public was not duped by the media about the Yellowstone fires; to one degree or another they placed more faith in Nature than in CBS.

Now two decades later, I believe the fires made a lasting change in the way agencies, politicians, and policymakers look at fires, and in the way the media reports fires.

In doing this, I argue it has ultimately influenced the American public by making them a more informed body on these subjects. Turner Eugene P. However, the fires provided an unparalleled opportunity to study the effects of a large, infrequent disturbance in an ecological system minimally affected by humans.

This presentation will synthesize understanding of how the fires affected forest communities, including patterns of succession, productivity, and nutrient cycling, native wildlife, and aquatic ecosystems. The fires were by no means an ecological catastrophe, and they have led to new insights about the nature, mechanisms, and importance of change. Paleoecological data offer unique and critical information on past fire regimes and their response to variations in climate and vegetation over thousands of years.

For example, charcoal and pollen records from the northwestern United States indicate that prolonged drought between 10, and 6, years ago led to higher than present fire activity and the development of extensive disturbance-adapted forests. Another period of high fire frequency occurred ca. Charcoal records also reveal the extent to which prehistoric people transformed vegetation through their deliberate use of fire. In New Zealand, for example, burning of native hardwood forests occurred within decades of Polynesian arrival, and the resulting grasslands have persisted to the present day.

Thus, long fire histories extend our understanding of ecosystem processes to periods of large and rapid environmental change. They also provide an important perspective by which to evaluate ongoing and future ecosystem change. Anthony L. As climate continues to change, temperature and moisture deficit—a measure of drought conditions that integrates temperature and precipitation—will likely increase and contribute to the number and size of fires across the West. Climate projections for the GYA indicate the region may become substantially drier over the next years, leading to increases in wildfires.

By the end of this century, extremely aggressive fire seasons like that of the summer of may occur in the GYA with much greater frequency than has been indicated for the region in its recent past. Flannigan nrcan. Weather is probably the most important factor for fire activity in Canada.

Fire activity has been increasing primarily due to human-caused changes in our weather, namely warming and drying, and we expect increasing fire activity for the foreseeable future. As fire activity increases in the boreal forest of Canada, managers face related high costs, risks to the health and safety of people, property loss, and timber loss.

Canada has developed fire management practices that may be applicable to the American West and at larger scales. Fire, which plays a major role in carbon dynamics by adding carbon to the atmosphere and by changing the carbon characteristics of forests through stand-renewing fires, is an important part of the climate system. Canada is preparing adaptation strategies for increased fire activity, longer fire seasons, and more ignitions and threats to communities and forests.

Managing the impacts of fire activity and global climate change requires a global solution. The Canadian Wildland Fire Strategy incorporates international best practices, knowledge, and expertise. This approach is coordinated and integrated across Canada and uses education, cooperation with municipalities and aboriginal groups, promotes a more efficient use of and investment in resources, and includes a research component.

Large-fire managers have taken advantage of the strategies and lessons learned from , such as improved and increased coordination and communication, but now face different challenges: development in the wildland—urban interface, declining resource availability, climate change, and expanding expectations for Incident Management Teams. Development causes managers to reposition resources to limited areas for protection and dramatically increases the number of agencies and entities with which managers engage.

To continue to meet current response expectations and maintain necessary response capabilities, it is projected that managers will need twice the resources. Managers are frequently forced to make difficult decisions about how and where they allocate available resources and to recognize that there is an increasing number of circumstances where our capability and capacity are exceeded by the natural and built environment.

Fuel loads are building below treeline, possibly causing a shift to more severe fire. Biodiversity, land use, and fuel buildup all concur below treeline, imposing opportunities and constraints for fire management. A comparison of historical and aerial photographs and Landsat imagery shows an increase in conifer cover in selected Douglas-fir zones of the GYE, suggesting possible changes in fuel load.

Coupled with a substantial decrease in fire frequency in these zones over the past years, high fuel availability is likely. Similar data show that aspen is currently located in less-than-optimal habitats. Aspen grows best in biophysical settings that also favor Douglas-fir growth. It is possible that competition with Douglas-fir limits aspen distribution and partially explains loss of aspen cover. Late-seral forests experiencing a decline in diversity due to dominance of certain tree species may be diversified by the introduction of fire.

However, use of disturbance to support biodiversity should favor low- and high-energy regions. Across North America, bird species richness has been associated with biophysical factors relating to primary productivity. In the GYE, predicted hot spots for bird species richness overlap with the lower Douglas-fir ecotone and areas of rural home development.

With land use and climate change, the potential for challenges will likely increase in future landscapes. Fire management strategies should be tailored to local conditions within regions and across the United States.

The lesson continues to be reiterated as the climate changes and recent fires easily exceed our operational capability to suppress and control; this is demonstrated by the fires of , , , and We need to begin seeing fire as a process like earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods, which are events we cannot control or manage. For half a century, we were successful in excluding fire from the fire-dependent ecosystems that we live and work in. We are capable of delaying fires, but putting out fires in a fire-dependent ecosystem is not a sustainable operation; our fire history clearly indicates that fire will eventually occur no matter the number of fires we extinguish.

Private landowners need to begin thinking about space that will survive a fire without protection assets rather than defensible space. It is also increasingly important to protect western watersheds as the climate changes.

Managing fire for resource benefits is a major tool for protecting and enhancing watersheds. Managers will need to look for solutions to this issue and recognize that mechanical treatments will have limited effects, as we do not have the capability nor would it be desirable to treat at a scale where it would be effective because of impacts to other resources.

A successful example of fire management policy is the Wildland Fire Use Program established in the Selway-Bitterroot Wilderness in After 36 years of managing fires for resource benefits, this area has smaller, less intense fires even during extreme fire weather.

This both benefits resources and protects communities. Without the expansion of the Wildland Fire Use Program to other areas of the northern Rockies, multiple large fires will continue to occur, and will significantly affect people and communities. With this level of importance and dynamic stature, the value of a strong, accurately focused policy to guide programmatic development and implementation cannot be overstated. A sound and eicient policy is built from driving factors or foundational processes that indicate a need.

Understanding the Present: Driving factors responsible for the present policy include improved state of knowledge; increased importance of community protection; improved capability; expanded interagency cooperation; wider ranging agency perspective and greater awareness of potential consequences; and escalating protection demands and expectations of success. Defining the Future: Recognition of lessons learned from past and present situations as well as response to policy change causal factors are prerequisite to future policy determinations.

Challenges that will be faced in the 21st century will be far more complex than ever before experienced. Policy driving factors and considerations will continue to escalate in complexity, numbers, and importance. Citation: Zimmerman, T. Page 6 in R. In that time, arguments over light burning gave way to firm fire exclusion policies. By the s, it was clear to most scientists and managers that fires are a natural, even essential component of many forest ecosystems and that fire exclusion is an illusion.

The absence of fire in many forests actually increases the risk and severity of future fires. Yellowstone was a watershed event in the progression of our understanding of the role of fire in ecosystems and the challenges of managing it.

We have since learned that the effects of management such as suppression or thinning vary among different forest types; that increased human development and access have increased ignitions, provided additional fuel, and greatly increased public risk from and attention to fire; that climatic conditions in many locations are changing in ways that may make fires more frequent or severe in the future.

Just as firefighters have adopted 10 Standard Fire Fighting Orders, I propose that fire managers consider 10 Standard Fire Management Orders: 1 Know what it is you are trying to accomplish and why. Time and time again they have proven valuable as training material and as sources of research data, and they also provide a mechanism for formalizing the basis for experienced judgment.

For example, a standard approach to case history or study report preparation was suggested by M. Alexander and D. Several popular-style books exist, yet a single comprehensive case study or history document that would serve to assist those that follow in learning lessons from this landmark event and its associated experiences, unfortunately does not currently exist. As a prelude to the session, this opening presentation will overview the existing literature e. Citation: Alexander, M. By the end of the summer, most of the area was in extreme drought.

To that mix, add a continued lack of precipitation, record high temperatures starting in February in some areas, and extending across the entire area by August. Temperatures continued warmer and dryer than normal throughout the month. August and September remained hot and dry, and a new factor was added to the steadily worsening situation: wind. Citation: Bushey, C. Page 9 in R. Don G. Fuel characteristics vary continuously from very sparse to very dense. National Fire-Danger Rating.

Nine classes designated A—I, representing the varied vegetation types from semitropical to alpine tundra, were recognized: three forest, three brush, and three grass. Comparable eforts were also being made in Canada. It is also more useful if it is robust and easily comprehended by novice and professional alike. Lodgepole is capable of growing on very poor soils, forming a climax or long-persisting seral forest. Surface fuels consist of 2 cm of compacted duf and sparse sedges and grasses.

Slightly better sites have a good cover of grouse whortleberry Vaccinium scoparium , a low subshrub. For climax stages, only the species abbreviation is used: e. Conclusions: his vegetation cover type concept was used to create a vegetation layer for a spatial cumulative efects model for the Greater Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Recovery Zone, which includes extensive areas outside the park boundaries.

It has proven quite robust and usable in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Citation: Despain, D. Page 10 in R. Methods: Review of published accounts and personal observations. Citation: Mutch, R. Page 11 in R. Annual precipitation in averaged about 3 inches below normal in northwest Wyoming and snowpacks measured on 1 April in and were both well below normal. Aside from a rather wet April, the late winter and spring of was drier than normal.

Wyoming recorded its hottest and driest summer on record during , with the Yellowstone National Park also reporting its driest summer ever. Results: In addition to the hot, dry weather, the Greater Yellowstone Area had an unusually high number of strong, dry cold fronts during the summer, with fronts occurring every 5—7 days. In addition, an unusual number of strong, dry cold fronts periodically afected the region during the summer.

Citation: Ochoa, R. Page 12 in R. Given the current emphasis on global climate change, it is also important to consider how temperature is trending over time.

A recent article suggests that the average minimum winter December—March temperature has been increasing over time in the GYA Saunders et al. George Wright Forum 24 1 — Temperature trends from the early s through were assessed using monthly and annual temperature information from six United States Historical Climatology Network stations.

Results: While year-to-year and between-station variability exists, in all cases the yearly maximum recorded ERC trend has been positive over time. Hebgen and Island Park saw an increase of 10 between the earliest recorded maximum yearly ERC compared with For Mammoth and Old Faithful the diference was 24 and 26, respectively. With the exception of the Old Faithful station for the period —, the yearly maximum ERC trend was negative, while for the period — the trend in yearly maximum ERC was positive.

Pooled temperature data exhibited a positive trend for average annual, minimum, and maximum temperature. From to , a steady increase for all annual measures of temperature were observed with a 1. Summer period June—August trends difered with annual average temperature and average annual maximum temperature remaining fairly constant for the period —, with having the highest recorded values. Since , both measures have been increasing. Increases in March temperatures are important, as it relates to snowpack loss and early drying of large fuels.

Ecology — Citation: McHugh, C. Page 13 in R. Thomas Renoveling, N. Methods: Using the templates of mindfulness found in high-reliability organizing HRO theory and qualitative analysis, reconstruct the events leading up to the Old Faithful Fire run.

We did not ask the basic questions that would have challenged our expectations: What mistakes must not occur? Are we treating all unexpected events as information? Are we speaking up, being skeptical, and communicating our true thoughts? If the FBAN had been more fully engaged with the overhead team, using these questions as a foundation, a stronger case could have been made to evacuate Old Faithful before the North Fork Fire burned onto the complex.

As it was, we lucked out and no one was hurt, but it could have easily been otherwise. Citation: homas, D. Page 14 in R. Cold fronts moving in from the West Coast could be expected every 5 to 7 days, bringing either rain or wind.

Methods: Developing a worst-case scenario proved to be impossible. Two methods, climatology and forecasting, were used for estimating weather.

Some of the most severe weather occurred in early September. In late August, litter fuels were sampled for moisture content every hour for 48 hours. Beyond the normal 3- to 5-day weather forecast, a wetting rain or strong winds are both possible. Citation: Rothermel, R. Page 15 in R. Despain2 1 U. Results: hese two data sets provided an opportunity to contrast the diferent mapping products. However, image characteristics from late summer have low sun illumination that cause shadow issues in regions of higher terrain.

Limited areas along the eastern and northeastern regions of the park had shadow issues that prevented the interpretation of burn characteristics. Fires occurring prior to also provided some misinterpretation on the analysis. An assessment comparing burn classes representing stand-replacing burn severity classes showed good agreement with Conclusions: Overall, there was good agreement between the two mapping eforts.

Diferences noted between the two can be attributed to diferences in imagery dates used in the delineations. Citation: Ohlen, D.

Page 16 in R. Citation: Renkin, R. Despain, and C. Page 17 in R. Kelley2 1 U. Location: Northwest United States. USDA For. Tables and graphs are produced as output to show the efect of a range of values on the predictions. Citation: Andrews, P. Page 18 in R. To overcome some of the perceived limitations of the fully empirical models, we also developed a semi-physically-based crown fuel ignition model CFIM.

Comparisons with other similar predictive models have also revealed the relative robustness of the models. Page 19 in R. Background: Fire behavior in horizontally or vertically discontinuous fuel complexes, such as found in certain conifer forests, is oten characterized by sudden changes in rate of spread and intensity. We propose an alternative method based on ensemble modeling that aims to incorporate the uncertainty that exists in the input variables. Location: Australia, but the general results are deemed universally applicable to conifer forests.

Comparison between the deterministic and ensemble results indicates departures between the two models when simulations are carried out in similar conditions that lead to the onset of crowning. Outside this transitional range, the outputs from both methods are essentially equal as demonstrated through a Taylor series expansion. Citation: Cruz, M. Page 20 in R. Wind gusts are manifestations of turbulent eddies generated by wind shear and buoyancy efects, which can be very large in the atmospheric boundary layer.

Methods: Numerical simulations using MM5 were carried out on a 4-km-grid spacing domain centered over northwestern Wyoming and covering the period of 1 August to 10 September Citation: Heilman, W. Page 21 in R. Lindsey,2 B. Stocks,3 R. Servranckx,4 and D. Stocks Wildfire Investigations Ltd. Despite the exhaustive analyses, reviews, and retrospectives, one important aspect remained unknown.

With the discovery of smoke in the stratosphere and techniques to identify pyroCb from space, a review of satellite data sets that enable pyroCb detection and impact assessment is possible. Citation: Fromm, M. Yellowstone and beyond: pyrocumulonimbus storms sent smoke to the stratosphere and around the globe [abstract]. Page 22 in R. How does the information difer between then and now? What have been the important advances in decision-support during the past 20 years?

And what might be the decision-support topics in the next 20 years? Background: In , only a limited amount of weather station data were available, but suicient data were available to assess regional climatic patterns, such as paper maps of the Palmer Drought Severity Index. Computer-aided climate information was extremely limited in compared with the vast amounts of data and graphics available today, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration seasonal climate outlooks were not in production until the late s.

Decision support tools in were quite limited compared with those of today. Both of these tools were foundational developments and are in wide use today. Gridded weather data sets and landform data sets are becoming more readily available in these systems. But the paradox comes from two places not being addressed by decision support tools.

To varying extents, these factors are not purely non-climatic because, for example, population growth in the West is partially environmentally and hence climate driven. What is meant by this distinction? Applications research concentrates on the incorporation of new knowledge or experience into existing models, decision processes, and practices. Efective adaptation research is done by coproduction and its usability and legitimacy is addressed at the onset of the work.

Finer-scale physics models will be more commonly available, given increased computing power. Probabilistic forecasts will be widely available and well understood by the user community. Development of decision support tools to support long-term decadal—century scale planning.

Tools that focus on the societal components of risk. Tools that emphasize mitigation and adaptation strategies. We thank Rick Ochoa for input into the presentation. Citation: Brown, T. Predicting Yellowstone: decision support of the past, present, and future [abstract]. Page 23 in R. Ronald H. When the U. Methods: A variety of published papers were reviewed and compared concerning fuel treatment efectiveness. It appears that many current recommendations for protecting structures on the urban— wildland interface continue to go unheeded in the park.

Citation: Wakimoto, R. Page 24 in R. Robert W. We learned a lot during the Fires of and Beyond, and there is promise that those lessons and others are going to be readily retrievable in the future. Perhaps the closing lines from a poem Mutch, R. I was there. Summer seasons much longer. Temperatures warmer. Twenty years from now bringing what?

But certainly there will be this: A complex array of images seen or imagined Phantasmagoria—Yellowstone lives Citation: Mutch, R. Closing remarks: What did we learn and what must we do to avoid relearning it? Page 25 in R. Renkin,2 Sean C. McEldery,3 and Timothy J. Klukas2 1 Alaska Fire Service, P.

Results: Available canopy fuel load at the Stinky Fire was 0. Mean tree height in the canopy fuel plots was 2. Fire behavior varied under the weather conditions observed but generally favored upslope spread aligned with the prevailing SWW wind. Passive phase spread rate was 2. Citation: Miller, E. Renkin, S. McEldery, and T.

Page 26 in R. Jimenez U. Background: he hirtymile Fire burned in central Washington during July Two inlets were introduced in the approximate location of the conifer stand immediately east across the creek from the road and deployment site. Citation: Butler, B. Page 27 in R. Few quantitative measurements of the emissive power as a function of vertical height above the ground have been reported.

Peak energy levels occurred below canopy top roughly 14 m [45 feet] tall. Flames were 0. Laboratory measurements indicate strong variation in emissive power with height. Page 28 in R. Butler,1 K. Hiers,2 R. Ottmar,3 M. Dickenson,4 R. Kremens,5 J. Hudak,7 and C. Clements7 1 U. Methods: Six prescribed burns were fully instrumented with in situ, remote sensed, and real-time weather observation equipment over a period of 6 days at Eglin Air Force Base outside of Pensacola, Florida, and the Jones Ecological Research Center in Ichauway, Georgia.

Fuel plots were systematically located in a two-chain feet grid in each of the units. Moisture samples were also collected before each burn. Aerial IR sensing was used to characterize the time course of heat release over entire burn units.

Ground-based IR sensors were used to calibrate the aerial imagery. Additionally, some air quality measures, including PM2. A data collecting meeting is scheduled for fall and will also cover the preplanning process for subsequent follow-up burns in spring Citation: Jimenez, D.

Page 29 in R. Shannon U. Methods: Two models have been developed: 1 WindWizard consists of a solution of the governing diferential equations describing conservation of mass and momentum for a computation domain constructed over the terrain of interest; 2 WindNinja solves only the conservation of mass equations for the same application. WindWizard, the most accurate method, requires about 1 hour of computational time per simulation and is available commercially. WindNinja is less accurate but much faster computationally and available at no cost.

Additional information is available online at www. Page 30 in R. Meteorologically, forecasting and issuing warnings for dry lightning activity is very diicult, in part because of the subjectivity in diferentiating between wet and dry thunderstorms in both time and space. Scripts automatically downscale the km original gridded lightning probability forecasts to a local 2.

Subjectively, the NCEP-SPC lightning probability forecasts captured the surges of increased lightning activity and lulls in activity through the summer. Hits on the new Web page totaled 3, visits for June, July, and August. Conclusions: he product should be expanded to other parts of the EGB Geographic Area and possibly other geographic areas across the western United States.

Citation: Sharples, S. Bothwell, E. Delgado, C. Gibson, and M. Page 31 in R. Of the 93 sites visited, 72 had burned. Understory vegetation combination of shrubs, herbs, and grasses averaged Surface fuels 1-, , and hour averaged 9. Fire behavior also varied between study sites. Factors that will be considered include topographical information slope and aspect ; vegetation characteristics i.

Fire behavior sensors failed at some sites due to high temperatures that melted cameras, rate-of-spread sensors not buried deeply, and equipment malfunction. Citation: Vaillant, N. Page 32 in R. Background: he sustainability of fuel reduction treatments requires maintenance of low densities of ladder fuels. Fire behavior was monitored during the fall prescribed burns using a video camera.

Flame heights were estimated at each plot using a post with 0. Seedlings between 0. Conclusions: he diferences in mortality thresholds for ponderosa pine seedlings and saplings highlight their susceptibility to diferent damage pathways and give managers several options when designing burn prescriptions. Citation: Battaglia, M. Smith, and W. Flame lengths associated with ponderosa pine regeneration mortality [abstract]. Page 33 in R. A one-dimensional momentum equation is solved numerically with turbulence closure.

Two-dimensional simulations are performed wherein the upstream surface wind speed and mixed-layer mean wind speed are varied independently in order to better understand the fundamental processes governing organizational mode and updrat strength. Plume cases are simulated with weak mixed-layer advection and are subdivided into intense plume and hybrid classes based on the degree of steadiness within the convection column.

Hybrid cases appear as columns of largely discrete updrats versus the more continuous updrat column associated with the intense plume mode. Multicell cases develop with strong mixed-layer advection and are subdivided into strong and weak classes based on the depth of convection. Intense plume and strong multicell hybrid and weak multicell cases develop when the surface buoyancy is large small. Associate Prof. In general, our results agree with that of Wooster Results demonstrate how surprising and complex BP patterns can be produced from very simple inputs.

Interactions among factors were important and in some cases produced counterintuitive BP patterns. Charney,1 Warren E.

Compared with its global counterpart, the NARR data set has much higher spatial km grid spacing and temporal 3-hourly resolution and is derived based on a more sophisticated land surface model and data assimilation algorithm. Because of these features, the NARR-based climatology of the Haines Index is expected to be more detailed and accurate compared with other existing climatologies based on coarser-resolution data sets.

A simple three-step worksheet is applied in minutes and is adaptable to conditions. Fire behavior metrics were measured with heat-triggered video cameras, sensors to measure rate of spread, and sometimes temperature. Recommendations for future improvements based on our trials and errors are summarized. Background: Estimation of aboveground biomass AGB is necessary for studying productivity, carbon cycles, nutrient allocation, and fuel accumulation in terrestrial ecosystems.

Remote sensing techniques allow examination of properties and processes of ecosystems and their interannual variability at multiple scales because satellite observations can be obtained over large areas of interest with high revisitation frequencies.

Many studies have demonstrated that indices such as spectral vegetation index, simple ratio, Normalized Diference Vegetation Index, and corrected Normalized Diference Vegetation Index obtained from satellite data are useful predictors of leaf area index, biomass, and productivity in grasslands and forests.

Although estimates of AGB vary with species composition, tree height, basal area, and stand structure, bole diameter at breast height dbh is the most commonly used and widely available variable for calculating AGB. Numerous regression models have been developed to estimate AGB in many regions; while these models are accurate at the tree, plot, and stand levels, they are limited when considering spatial pattern analysis of AGB across the landscape.

In order to scale AGB estimates to the landscape level, the estimates must be linked with various vegetation indices derived by remote sensing data. Finally, a biomass map was produced by estimation equations for fuel types. Hardwood H and mixed M forests were recognized as diferent land cover types.

Citation: Won, M. Koo, M. Lee, and W. Page 38 in R. Sanborn, in cooperation with the Florida Division of Forestry, has developed new methods to derive vegetation classes that have unique canopy characteristics.

Conclusions: he project being developed in Florida uses many data sets that are available to other states. Citation: Brenner, A. Brenner, D. Carlton, and J. Page 39 in R. Clark,1 Matthew J. Duveneck,2 Ross F. Nelson,3 and John L. Remote Sens. Location: Warren Grove Gunnery Range lat Spatial statistics illustrate contrasts in the continuity of fuel in diferent burn intensities. Many of these results would be inconclusive utilizing only standard LiDAR parameters, which are unable to accurately characterize subtle variations in canopy fuel structure because of the inherent overgeneralization of these metrics.

Citation: Skowronski, N. Clark, M. Duveneck, R. Nelson, and J. Fire severity and spatial distribution of fuels estimated using pre- and post-LiDAR—derived fuel measurements [abstract].

Page 40 in R. Background: Snags and coarse woody fuels or coarse woody debris [CWD] are important structural elements of forest and woodland ecosystems, providing long-term storage sites for nutrients and moisture, as well as essential habitat for certain wildlife.

Additionally, we examine the relationship between live and dead overstory structure, as well as the relationship between coarse woody fuels and overstory structure. Methods: A systematic sample based on a random start of 20 0. Descriptive statistics and simple linear regressions between overstory structural variables and fuel loading were calculated using Number Crunching Statistical Systems. Results: Mean live tree basal area was